Cu Mo Au
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The Baogutu porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located ~60 km southwest of Kelamayi (or Karamay) and ~300 km NW to NNW from Urumqi in Xinjiang, China, and lies within the west Junggar Terrane, which is, in turn, in the central section of the Palaeozoic Central Asian Orogenic Belt (#Location: 45° 21' 50"N, 84° 16' 56"E).
The West Junggar Terrane is bounded to the north by the Altai orogen (which lies to the south of the Siberian Craton) and by the Tianshan orogen to the south (which is, in turn, bounded to the south by the cratonic Tarim Block). It extends westward into the similar successions of the Junggar-Balkhash region in adjacent Kazakhstan, and eastward to pass under the younger Jurassic cover of the Junggar Basin in north Xinjiang, northwest China (Shen et al., 1996; Qin et al., 2002; Chen and Arakawa, 2005; Xiao et al., 2008).
The Ordovician to Permian sequences which occupy the the West Junggar Terrane can be further divided into southern and northern segments separated by the 46°15'N line of latitude (Shen et al., 2013). The northern segment is characterised by Silurian and Devonian strata, while in contrast, Devonian and Carboniferous rocks are extensively represented in the southern segment. Tectonically, the northern West Junggar is characterised by three almost east-west oriented faults, which are, from north to south, the Saur, Hongguleleng and Xiemisitai faults, while in the southern West Junggar, the main structures are the NE trending Barluk, Mayile and Darbut faults, also from north to south (Xiao et al., 2009; Shen et al., 2013; Cao et al., 2017).
The West Junggar Terrane is predominantly made up of island-arc and back-arc basin rocks, deposited in a number of temporally and spatially separate arcs systems (Shen et al., 1996; Chen and Jahn, 2004; Xiao et al., 2008; Shen et al., 2008, 2009). These arc and back-arc sequences were accreted onto the Kazakhstan plate as the Tarim, Kazakhstan and Siberian plates converged (Chen and Jahn, 2004; Chen and Arakawa, 2005; Xiao et al., 2008). During this period, volcanic-hosted (e.g., Hatu Au) and intrusion-related gold deposits (e.g., Baogutu Au; Shen and Jin, 1993; Shen et al., 1996) and porphyry copper deposits (e.g., Baogutu Cu; Shen and Jin, 1993; Wang and Xu., 2006; Shen, 2008, 2009) were formed in the Hatu gold and Baogutu copper belts, respectively. These metallogenic belts are separated by the regional scale, NE-SW trending Darbut fault.
The intrusive rocks in the West Junggar terrane are dominantly of Carboniferous and Permian age, and occur as either large granitic batholiths or small stocks flanking the principal faults. The former appear to have no relationship to mineralisation, while in contrast, the widespread smaller stocks are often related to porphyry-type mineralisation, both temporally and spatially (Cao et al., 2020).
Exposure in the West Junggar terrane is predominantly sequences of Devonian to Lower Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks, andesites, basalts and some tectonic melanges, intruded by the voluminous Lower Carboniferous 294 to 308 Ma A-type, and lesser ~312 to 316 Ma I-type granitoids (Shen and Jin, 1993; Yin et al., 2018). All of these sequences are overlain by Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary cover.
The volcanic rocks of the Silurian and Devonian sequences of northwestern West Junggar are principally of Devonian age. Over much of the the southeastern West Junggar, where Devonian to Carboniferous sequences predominate, volcanic rocks are Lower Carboniferous in age. This is particularly so near the Darbut fault, along which the early Carboniferous Anqi and Darbut volcanic belts are localised, separated by the NE-SW Anqi fault which is ~45 km NW of, and sub-parallel to, the Darbut Fault. These younger volcanic belts extend northeastward from Liushugou to Sartuohai over a distance of ~150 km. Three Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units make up the sequence in the Anqi and Darbut volcanic belts, which are, from the base:
• Tailegula Group - a succession of basalt and minor andesite volcanic, and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with cherts.
Pillow basalt and chert of this sequence in the Anqi volcanic belt yielded ages of 328±31 Ma (Rb-Sr; Shen et al., 1993; Li and Chen, 2004) and 323±22 Ma (Rb-Sr; Li and Chen, 2004), respectively. Volcanic-hosted gold mineralisation of the Hatu metallogenic belt occurs in the Early Carboniferous Tailegula Group.
• Baogutu Group, includes tuffaceous siltstone, silty tuff and felsic tuff with intercalations of pebbly greywacke and lenses of limestone, marl and bioclastic limestone. Felsic tuff in the Darbut volcanic belt yielded an age of 328.1±1.8 Ma (U-Pb zircon SHRIMP; Wang and Zhu, 2007).
• Xibeikulasi Group, which commences with a transition from platformal to littoral, subaerial and fluvial sedimentation, marked by the appearance of coarse-grained clastic rocks in this group. This succession comprises greywacke with graded bedding, tuffaceous mudstone and tuffaceous siltstone with soft sediment deformation textures.
Diorites intruded the Devonian to Lower Carboniferous volcanic rocks at ~322 Ma (Shen and Jin, 1993; Hu et al., 1997; Han et al., 2006), including many small mineralised stocks in the Darbut volcanic belt (Shen and Jin, 1993; Shen et al., 2009). Twelve of these, named Stocks I to XII are distributed over an area of 45 x 25 km, spatially and temporally related to copper mineralisation, and define the Baogutu metallogenic belt. Stock V, 35 km SE of the Darbut Fault, is the mineralised Baogutu Intrusive Complex. Numerous gold deposits/occurrences are distributed over the same area.
Termination of oceanic volcanism and sedimentation during the Carboniferous is reflected by continental sequences of the Xibeikulasi Group that abruptly transgressed over the earlier Palaeozoic marine facies. A subsequent extensional regime was accompanied by emplacement of voluminous post-collisional granitoids following the consolidation of the elements of Xinjiang and Kazakhstan in the late Palaeozoic (Chen and Jahn, 2004; Chen and Arakawa, 2005; Wang et al., 2004, 2006; Zhou et al., 2006, 2008). These barren granite batholiths comprise separate calc-alkaline and alkalic magmatic suites intruding the Devonian to lower Carboniferous volcanic rocks at ~300 Ma (Hu et al., 1997; Chen and Jahn, 2004; Han et al., 2006; Su et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2006, 2008).
The structural framework of the West Junggar terrane is dominated by a series of more or less NE trending faults, e.g., the Darbut, Mayile, Anqi and Barluke faults. The Darbut fault was the focus of intense magmatism and associated mineralisation. The stratigraphy, folds and major faults are oriented generally north-south and ENE on the southern side of the Darbut fault and are almost orthogonal to the main structural fabric on the northern side of that structure.
The Baogutu deposit is associated with the Baogutu Intrusive Complex and lies to the southwest of the regional scale Darbut Fault. It was the first porphyry copper deposit discovered in the West Junggar region.
The Baogutu Intrusive Complex is located on the eastern limb of the north-south Xibeikulasi syncline. The intruded country rocks comprise the Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks mainly of the Baogutum Group, and just east of the exposed contact with the Xibeikulasi Group. In the deposit area, these sequences are as follows:
• Baogutu Group, which is intruded by the intrusive complex. It is composed of volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks, the most abundant of which are tuffaceous siltstone and silty tuff. The tuffs have a felsic composition and contain vitric and angular crystal fragments of plagioclase and quartz set in a felsitic tuffaceous matrix. The matrix is principally composed of quartz, feldspar, sericite and sulphide. Minor coherent andesite lenses contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and hornblende in a plagioclase-rich groundmass. Porphyry-style mineralisation occurs in the tuffaceous siltstone, silty tuff and crystal-vitric tuff adjacent to the intrusive complex.
• Xibeikulasi Group, to the west of the complex, is composed of greywackes that have graded bedding, tuffaceous mudstones and tuffaceous siltstones with soft-sediment deformation textures.
• The Baogutu Intrusive Complex is dominated by diorites, including equigranular diorite, porphyritic diorite, hydrothermal breccias and rare granodiorite, with the late diorite porphyries being emplaced at ~313 Ma. At least two intrusive phases are distinguished within the Baogutu deposit area, based on crosscutting relationships. They are:
Main stage equigranular to porphyritic diorites and quartz diorites, collectively referred to as 'main stage diorites'. These are intimately associated with mineralisation, and comprise an inner equigranular diorite phase and outer porphyritic- and quartz-diorites. The equigranular diorite, porphyritic diorite and quartz diorite have all been partially brecciated. The inner core of equigranular diorite is ~500 m below the current erosional surface and has an equigranular hypidiomorphic texture further subdivided into a dominant (>70%) fine-grained (1 to 2 mm) and lesser medium-grained (2 to 3 mm) diorite. Both contain plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, minor pyroxene, quartz, rare titanite, rutile, apatite, magnetite and zircon.
The predominant rocks within the main stage intrusion, surrounding the central equigranular diorite core, are porphyritic diorites and quartz diorites, characterised by a fine- to medium-grained, weakly to moderately porphyritic texture. The contact with the equigranular core is gradational and locally brecciated. The porphyritic diorites and quartz diorites have similar mineralogy to the equigranular diorites, but are distinguished by less pyroxene (<3 to 5%) and more quartz (<10 vol.%, up to 15 vol.%). Minor, fine grained porphyritic diorite forms a marginal phase.
Late stage diorite porphyries, occurring as several small bodies around the margins of the main stage diorite intrusions. Sharp contacts between the late and main stage diorites are exposed mainly on the outer rim of the intrusive complex. These late stage diorites are characterised by a porphyritic texture and are subdivided into coarse diorite and fine diorite porphyries, based on the grain size of the groundmass. Phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende and biotite are generally 2 to 3 mm in diameter and comprise 10 to 15 vol.% of the rock. Microcrystalline plagioclase, hornblende and quartz constitute the groundmass, which comprises 85 to 90 vol.% of these porphyries.
Two breccia types have also been identified, namely i). mineralised, hydrothermal breccias and ii). very weakly mineralised matrix-rich breccias. These form irregular to ellipsoid bodies that are up to 300 to 400 m long and 300 to 400 m thick, and are located in the centre and deepest parts of the Baogutu Intrusive Complex. The hydrothermal breccias are matrix-deficient and contain millimetre-size, angular and subrounded clasts of main stage diorites cemented by hydrothermal minerals which include, biotite, quartz and accessory sulphides. They are confined to the area where the potassic-altered main stage diorites have not been overprinted by phyllic alteration, and have gradational contacts with the main stage diorites. The polymict, matrix-rich breccias are characterised by abundant matrix and minor cement, and contain mm to cm sized, angular to subrounded clasts of biotite- and sericite-altered diorite or diorite porphyry, together with clasts of hydrothermal breccias and wall-rock clasts derived from the Baogutu and Xibeikulasi Groups in a silt- to sand-sized matrix. These breccias are also largely confined to the area where potassic alteration has been overprinted by a phyllic assemblage.
Post-mineralisation, NE to east-west trending, fine-grained (<1 mm) diorite porphyry and dolerite dykes that are <2 to 5 m thick and 10 to 50 m long cut both the diorite complex and country rock sequence.
The Baogutu Intrusive Complex contains mineralisation that is predominantly disseminated Cu-Mo-Au with lesser >1 cm wide veins and <1 cm wide veinlets, as well as breccia-hosted sulphides in diorites, quartz diorites and tuffaceous rocks. The Cu-Au mineralisation is localised in the main complex and at its outer contacts with the country rocks (Cheng and Zhang, 2006, Zhang, R., et al., 2006). Gold grades vary from 0.03 to 1.17 g/t Au, averaging ~0.1 g/t (Zhang et al., 2009), localised at depth within the intrusive complex and at its outer contacts. Economic Mo mineralisation (generally >0.01% with minor domains of >0.06% Mo) is found at depth within the intrusive complex.
The main zone of mineralisation has an area of ~1100 × 800 m, extending over a vertical interval of >700 m, and is covered by Quaternary overburden. The 0.2% Cu grade boundary in the main ore zone defines a wedge-shaped zone ~800 m wide and ~>600 m deep in cross-section in the centre of the deposit. In three dimensions, it defines a downward tapering cone shape that is ~700 m long, persisting to a depth of >550 m in longitudinal section). Mineralisation is best developed in the northern and eastern parts of the intrusive complex, with Cu and Mo grades gradually increasing with depth. The highest grade zones with >0.4% Cu or >0.03% Mo occur at depths of 300 to 700 m below surface at the northwestern and eastern parts of the complex, where they are associated with intensely developed hydrothermal breccias and/or higher fracture densities. The orebody dips northeast at an angle of ~45 to 55°, implying significant tilting since ore formation.
Two main paragenetic stages have been defined, both of which contain disseminations and vein generations.
• Main stage interpreted to have been emplaced synchronously with, or after, the emplacement of the main stage diorites, split into:
- Pre-mineral Stage 1A - barren actinolite, albite, magnetite ±epidote alteration.
- Syn-mineral stage 1B - accompanied by extensive potassic alteration. It comprises widespread disseminated mineralisation as well as quartz sulphide veins and veinlets, and was emplaced after intrusion of the main stage diorites. The relative proportion of copper introduced during this stage 1B has been visually estimated (Shen et al., 2010) to be ~60 to 70% of the total Cu at Baogutu. Sulphides mostly occur as disseminations in the diorites, quartz diorites and adjacent wall rocks, and were emplaced synchronously with the formation of the 'inner potassic' biotite-quartz-(magnetite-rutile-chlorite) and 'outer potassic' biotite-quartz-magnetite (K feldspar-apatite) alteration zones. Sulphides have also cemented early hydrothermal breccias, inferred to have formed at the same time. Disseminated chalcopyrite (±pyrite ±pyrrhotite) and magnetite in the main Baogutu deposit is accompanied by moderately to strongly developed secondary biotite alteration.
Quartz-chalcopyrite ±pyrite ±pyrrhotite veins and veinlets are common within the Baogutu stock, with minor quartz-chalcopyrite ±pyrite ±molybdenite veinlets and quartz-biotite-magnetite-chalcopyrite ±pyrite veinlets. The veins of this stage are characterised by euhedral quartz, anhedral chalcopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite, and lack alteration selvedges. They are typically 1 to 5 mm thick and chalcopyrite rich with increasing pyrite towards the periphery of the deposit. Quartz ±biotite is the dominant gangue assemblage. Ore grades are appreciably enhanced where mineralised veins and veinlets overprint the disseminated mineralisation, constituting the main higher grade (>0.4%) copper mineralisation in
the inner potassic subzone. In the country rocks, 5 to 20 mm thick quartz-chalcopyrite-pyrite veins and veinlets predominate, with minor 0.1 to 0.2 mm biotite-(quartz) and 0.1 to 0.5 mm K feldspar-magnetite and apatite veinlets. These country rock veins and veinlets are more continuous than those in the diorites, but also lack alteration selvedges. Veins with secondary biotite and quartz-chalcopyrite ±pyrite reach ore grades mainly in the outer potassic subzone.
- Late-mineral Stage 1C - which comprises veins or veinlets that contain euhedral quartz, anhedral molybdenite ±chalcopyrite ±pyrite; quartz-chalcopyrite-pyrite; and pyrrhotite ±quartz with associated phyllic alteration, all of which overprint earlier potassic alteration assemblages and related stage 1B veins. Stage 1C veins are typically 1 to 50 mm thick and contributed ~20 to 30% of the Cu and the bulk of the Mo (90%) within the Baogutu deposit. Some of these veins have phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite) selvedges that range from 1 to 30 mm thick. Intense, texturally destructive phyllic alteration occurs in discrete domains at depth and on the rim of the Baogutu stock. accompanied by grades of 0.2 to 0.4% Cu and 0.01 to 0.02% Mo. The highest Mo grades of >0.06% occur where intense phyllic alteration occurs in association with concentrations of stage 1C veins.
• Late stage, split into:
- Stage 2A - which was accompanied by potassic alteration in the late stage diorite porphyries and crosscuts stage 1C phyllic alteration in the porphyritic diorites and quartz diorites. Potassic alteration is restricted to the groundmass and comprises fine-grained secondary biotite, quartz, magnetite, chlorite and actinolite, and is associated with disseminated sulphide mineralisation that reaches grades of 0.2 to 0.4% Cu. Late stage veins and alteration are estimated to contain ~5 to 10% of the Cu.
- Stage 2B - characterised by matrix-rich breccias that have crosscut stage 1 and 2 veins and altered rocks. They have a
weakly developed gypsum ±biotite ±quartz alteration assemblage that also occurs as breccia cement locally.
Supergene mineralisation is only poorly developed at Baogutu, with minor enrichment of primary ores at surface, where chalcopyrite has been oxidised to malachite.
The main stage diorites contain an early, pre-mineral Ca-Na silicate alteration assemblage, which has been overprinted by potassic alteration that can be grouped into an inner 1200 x 1400 m potassic subzone and an outer 100 to 500 m wide peripheral potassic subzone. The inner subzone persists to depths of
>600 m. These potassic zones are, in turn, surrounded by a distal propylitic alteration envelope that lacks significant sulphides. Phyllic alteration overprints the potassic assemblages. Cu-Fe sulphides and molybdenite are closely associated with the potassic and phyllic assemblages. The late stage diorite porphyries have been subjected to selective pervasive potassic groundmass alteration, but with only weak Cu-Fe sulphide mineralisation. The matrix-rich breccias are very weakly mineralised and altered.
These alteration zones comprise:
Main stage alteration
• Ca-Na silicate alteration, the initial phase of the main stage alteration of the main stage diorites. It comprises an assemblage of actinolite, albite, magnetite ±epidote, best preserved at depth, where it has not been obscured by later overprints. Primary plagioclase and hornblende have been respectively replaced by fine-grained albite and by fine, disseminated actinolite and magnetite.
• Potassic alteration, which is predominant in the main stage diorites and in a large volume of the surrounding crystal-rich, vitric tuff, silty tuff and tuffaceous siltstone.
- The inner potassic subzone is characterised by an assemblage of biotite-quartz-magnetite ±rutile ±chlorite. Diorites have been subjected to intense, texturally destructive, pervasive biotite alteration, where fine-grained, shreddy, randomly oriented biotite clusters pseudomorph primary mafic minerals and are associated with biotite veinlets. Primary brown hornblende has been partially or completely replaced by secondary biotite and magnetite, whilst primary biotite was altered to secondary biotite and/or chlorite and rutile. Hypidiomorphic-granular grey quartz is common. This 'inner potassic subzone' has been further split into areas of weak (<5 % secondary biotite), moderate (5 to 10 % biotite) and strong (>10 % biotite) alteration. Domains of moderate biotite alteration have 0.2 to 0.4 % Cu grades, whilst intense secondary biotite has associated magnetite and quartz veinlets and
locally >0.4% Cu grades. The abundance of secondary biotite decreases outwards toward the 'outer potassic' subzone.
- The outer potassic subzone has a gradational contact with the inner subzone, and is defined by biotite-quartz-magnetite ±K feldspar ±apatite. It occurs in the volcano-sedimentary wall rocks adjacent to the intrusive complex and is a dark coloured fine grained rock with a mineralogy that cant be discriminated with the naked eye. The abundance of secondary biotite, which is generally <10 vol.%, decreases outward from the diorites.
• Propylitic alteration, the potassic alteration assemblage passes laterally outward to a peripheral propylitic assemblage of chlorite, epidote, pyrite, sericite and calcite. Zones of intense chlorite-epidote alteration occur in the fine-grained diorites at depths of 550 to 600 m. The Baogutu Group andesite, and to a lesser extent, the volcanosedimentary wall rocks (e.g., tuffaceous siltstone, silty tuff and tuff) have also undergone propylitic alteration. Mafic minerals in the fine-grained diorite and country rocks are selectively altered to chlorite and epidote. Extensive domains of chlorite-epidote alteration extend for up to 600 m from the intrusive complex. Propylitic-altered rocks contain the lowest grades of 0.01 to 0.02% Cu in the intrusive complex, whilst propylitic-altered, volcaniclastic country rocks are barren.
• Phyllic alteration, which is pervasive, overprints the early-formed potassic assemblages, and is typically composed of sericite-quartz-pyrite ±chlorite ±carbonate. Phyllic alteration has affected >50% of the Baogutu deposit. Where this alteration is intense, mafic minerals have been sericitised and magnetite destroyed, leaving only relict textures as evidence of the potassic assemblages. Biotite has been
partially chloritised and plagioclase has been converted to sericite, calcite and chlorite. Magnetite has generally been partially altered to hematite along microfractures and grain boundaries. Quartz-pyrite veinlets with sericitic alteration selvedges are uncommon. Phyllic alteration is most intensely developed on the eastern side of the complex, where it has overprinted the intrusive complex and adjacent country rocks. The intensity of phyllic alteration increases with depth and with increasing proximity to the country rocks. The distribution of 'moderate' and 'strong' phyllic alteration closely correlates with domains of 0.2 to 0.4 % Cu grades.
Late stage alteration
• Potassic alteration, in late stage diorite porphyry occurs as similar but lower intensity potassic alteration, mainly affecting the groundmass of the porphyries and has locally produced grades of 0.2 to 0.4% Cu, although this style of alteration is often unmineralised. The potassic assemblage in the coarse-grained late stage diorite porphyry comprises fine grained secondary biotite, quartz, magnetite, chlorite and actinolite, whilst scaley secondary biotite, quartz and magnetite have replaced the groundmass in the fine-grained, late stage diorite porphyry.
Potassic alteration of matrix-rich breccias has only been weak, locally producing a biotite-quartz-gypsum cement and very weak local Cu-Fe mineralisation.
Fluid inclusion and geochemical studies suggest the hydrothermal fluids that produced the Baogutu deposit belonged to an H2O-NaCl-CH4(-CO2) system with homogenisation temperatures and salinities of 151 to 530°C, and 0.2 to 63.9 wt.% NaClequiv. respectively (Li et al., 2019). This is consistent with data that show most quartz inclusions are rich in CH4 (Shen et al., 2010). The deposit has reduced mineralisation characteristics (Shen and Pan, 2013), which is interpreted to have resulted from significant contamination by reduced country rock lithologies, e.g. carbonaceous sediment, after emplacement of the Baogutu Igneous Complex (Shen and Pan, 2013).
The deposit comprises (quoted by Shen et al., 2015):
~225 Mt @ 0.28% Cu containing 0.63 Mt of Cu;
~160 Mt @ 0.011% Mo containing 0.018 Mt of Mo;
~140 Mt @ 0.1 g/t Au containing 14 Mt of Au.
The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2019.
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd. Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.
Cao, M., Qin, K., Li, G., Jin, L., Evans, N.J. and Yang, X., 2014 - Baogutu: An example of reduced porphyry Cu deposit in western Junggar: in Ore Geology Reviews v.56, pp. 159-180.|
Cao, M.-J., Qin, K.-Z., Li, G.-M., Evans, N.J., He, H.-Y. and Jin. L.-Y., 2015 - A mixture of mantle and crustal derived He-Ar-C-S ore-forming fluids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar: in J. of Asian Earth Sciences v.98, pp. 188-197.|
Li, C., Shen, P., Pan, H. and Seitmuratova, E., 2019 - Control on the size of porphyry copper reserves in the North Balkhash-West Junggar Metallogenic Belt: in Lithos v.328-329, pp. 244-261.|
Pirajno, F., Seltmann, R. and Yang, Y., 2011 - A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China: in Geoscience Frontiers v.2, pp. 157-185.|
Shen, P., Pan, H., Shen, Y., Yan, Y. and Zhong, S., 2015 - Main deposit styles and associated tectonics of the West Junggar region, NW China: in Geoscience Frontiers v.6, pp. 175-190.|
Shen, P., Shen, Y., Pan, H., Li, X.H., Dong, L., Wang, J., Zhu, H., Dai, H. and Guan, W., 2012 - Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China: in J. of Asian Earth Sciences v.49, pp. 99-115.|
Shen, P., Shen, Y.C., Pan, H., Wang, J.B., Zhang, R. and Zhang, Y.X., 2010 - Baogutu Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Deposit, West Junggar, Northwest China: Petrology, Alteration, and Mineralization : in Econ. Geol. v.105, pp. 947-970.|
Shen, P., Xiao, W., Pan, H., Dong, L. and Li, C., 2013 - Petrogenesis and tectonic settings of the Late Carboniferous Jiamantieliek and Baogutu ore bearing porphyry intrusions in the southern West Junggar, NW China: in J. of Asian Earth Sciences v.75, pp. 158-173.|
Yin, J., Chen, W., Xiao, W., Long, X., Tao, N., Liu, L.-P., Yuan, C. and Sun, M., 2018 - Tracking the multiple-stage exhumation history and magmatichydrothermal events of the West Junggar region, NW China: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology: in J. of Asian Earth Sciences v.159, pp. 130-141.|
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