Kambalda, Widgiemooltha, Tramways - Lunnon, Hunt, Victor, Long,Durkin, Otter-Juan, Gellatly, McMahon, Coronet, Fisher, Hunt, Foster,Jan, Helmut, Schmitz, Lanfranchy, Redross, Mariners,Miitel, Wannaway, Cassini,Cameron,Stockwell, Blair,Carnilya,Moran
Western Australia, WA, Australia
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The Kambalda magmatic sulphide nickel mines lie within the south-central section of the NNW-SSE aligned Neoarchaean, Kalgoorlie granite-greenstone Terrane, and is 60 to 100 km SSE of Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. More than 22 deposits worked as part of the Kambalda operation, includes those on the flanks of the Kambalda and Widgiemooltha domes, and within the St Ives, Tramway and Golden Ridge - Carnilya Hill belts, and other equivalent exposures of komatiitic flows, as listed below.
The lowest member of the host succession within the Kambaldo Dome sequence is the Lunnon Basalt which is overlain by the host 2710 Ma Kambalda Komatiite, followed by the Devon Consols Basalt and a package of basalts and sediments (slates and greywackes) deposited from 2710 to 2670 Ma. These are intruded by a 2662 Ma granitoid stock which forms the core of the oval shaped Kambalda Dome around which the individual orebodies are distributed in an annular zone of approximately 8 x 3 km, elongated in a NNW direction. Peripheral porphyry dykes associated with the granitoid stock cut both the hosts and ore.
The sill like Kambalda Komatiite, which lies more or less conformably between the two basalts, is composed of the upper Tripod Hill Member and the lower Silver Lake Member, with Fe-Ni mineralisation being generally restricted to the lowermost sections of the latter. In each, flow, lateral and vertical variations in composition, degree of differentiation and distribution of interflow sediments define channel flow and sheet flow facies. Channel flows may be up to 100 m thick, 500 m wide and 15 km long, occupying channel structures in the underlying Lunnon Basalt.
The Fe-Ni sulphides are usually restricted to the base of the lowermost channel flows - contact orebodies - but are occasionally also in higher flows - hangingwall orebodies. The contact orebodies, which have historically accounted for 80% of the reserves, occur as elongate, lensoid and tabular ribbon like bodies up to 3 km long and 300 m wide and usually <5 m thick, containing <0.5 to 10 Mt ore lenses. The individual orebodies grade upwards from the around 2 m thick basal massive (>80%) sulphides to around 2 m of matrix (40 to 80%) sulphide, to disseminated and blebby sulphides.
Deposits around the Kambalda Dome include Lunnon, Hunt, Victor, Victor South - McLeay, Long, Gibb, Durkin, Otter-Juan, Gellatly, McMahon, Coronet, Fisher, Ken, Hunt, Alpha and Beta.
Mining commenced in the Kambalda district in 1967, and from 1972 to 1988 exploration maintained resources at an almost constant level of around 25 Mt @ 3.2% Ni. Total production from 1976 to 1996 was ~34 Mt @ 3.1% Ni and to 2020 was ~51 Mt @ 3.1% Ni. The bulk of the earlier production was from the main Kambalda Dome deposits.
Similar bodies have been outlined and mined in the surrounding district as part of the Kambalda Nickel Operations. These include the:
• St Ives belt, ~10 to 15 km to the south which includes the Foster and Jan deposits;
• Tramways belt, 45 km to the south, including the Helmut, Deacon, Schmitz, Edwin, Jury-Metcalfe and Lanfranchy deposits;
• Widgiemooltha Dome, 30 to 40 km to the SSW, including the Redross, Mariners, Miitel, Widgie, Mount Edwards, Wannaway and Cassini deposits;
• Bluebush Line, which inclues the Cameron and Stockwell deposits located between the Tramway belt and Widgiemooltha Dome, some 40 km to the south, and 10 to 15 km east of the Widgiemooltha Dome;
• Golden Ridge-Carnilya Hill Belt, 40 km to the NE of Kambalda, which comprise the Blair and Carnilya Hill mines.
All of the distances are with respect to the Kambalda Dome.
Examples of the larger, now mined out, Kambalda Dome shoots/deposits include:
The Durkin shoot occurs at the northern end of the Kambalda Dome, and is to the east of, and essentially continuous with, the Juan, East/Durkin Deeps and Juan shoots. At Durkin, as at the Juan, Otter, Gibb, Long and Victor shoots, ore is predominantly contact mineralisation with well-defined structural control. The only hanging wall ores are blebby zones within the basal unit and there is no stratiform hanging-wall ore. The Durkin orebody outcrops and extends over a length of ~1500 m, trending at 285°, and is terminated to the east by granite. It has shallow plunges to both the east and west, and a maximum width of 300 m. The deposit has been extensively mined from a vertical shaft to the 8 level.
The basal unit is 25 to 60 m thick. Although minor original olivine occurs in the eastern end of the shoot, overall the basal unit is antigorite rich with carbonation increasing to the west. The upper member comprises flow units with very well developed textural and compositional differentiation, and although it is predominantly peridotitic and picritic in composition, thick high magnesium units do occur high in the sequence. The shoot contains three structural domains. In the east a well defined trough is formed by thrusts. The central portion of the deposit is dominated by thrusts with NE-plunging pinch-outs and pronounced scissor movement along faults. To the west, the structures are dominated by thrusts and significant subvertical normal fault movement, with pronounced folding of the basaltic contact and common flat NW-plunging axes. Thrusting took place early, with later movement on normal faults and the contact and folding of some thrusts.
More than 90% of the ore is contact mineralisation, the style of which changes from east to west as the structural style changes. To the east, massive sulphides dominate, and are ~0.5 m thick. The central section of the deposit is composed of matrix ore with massive mineralisation in the pinch-outs of diagonal thrusts, whilst in the western end, matrix mineralisation occurs with massive ore only in major pinch-outs. The tenor of massive ore is variable, but the massive sulphide averages 14 to 16% Ni with S:Ni ratios of between 2.0 and 2.2. Above the 2 Level, all of the ore is supergene with valeriite+pyrite±chalcopyrite, with the transition to hypogene ore occurring down to the 7L. Blebby hanging wall ore occurs within the serpentinised basal unit. Sulphide blebs, essentially composed of pentlandite are associated with silicate blebs. Underlying contact sediments are absent within the ore deposit, but are abundant down dip on the flanks of the orebody, dying out above the ore zone. There are no known occurrences of ore associated with sediments. This Durkin description is from Gresham and Loftus Hills (1981).
The Lunnon shoot is located on the eastern flank, at the southern end of the Kambalda Dome. Nickel sulphides were discovered at Lunnon in January 1966 and production from this orebody commenced in March 1967. The ore complex at Lunnon outcrops has a down plunge length of >2400 m. Although reversals are evident, the overall plunge trends at 150° and averages 15°. It has a maximum width of 280 m, while the main Lunnon 'trough' hosting the basal ore has a plunge length of 1850 m. Hanging-wall ore occurs in inter-flow positions and generally overlies the contact mineralisation. In 1981, the orebody was accessed by a vertical shaft to the 11 Level, with development extending for 2500 m to the south.
The Lower Member at Lunnon comprises a series of thick high magnesium flows with dominant carbonated assemblage. It may be up to 140 m thick over the trough, but thins to the south from an average of 50 to 70 m in the north to 30 to 40 m in the south, coinciding with a diminishing intensity of mineralis. It also thins to the east and west with interflow sediments becoming more prevalent. In places, the basal unit is overlain by a thick (up to 25 m) picritic unit. The upper member is dominated by peridotitic flow units with minor thin picritic flows, whilst the footwall basalt is strongly pillowed in places, with some flow top breccias.
The western margin of the Lunnon trough structure is defined by a steeply dipping normal fault that has been active over a substantial period, displacing the contact ores considerably more than the hanging wall mineralisation. Low to moderate angle reverse thrusts mark the eastern margin of the trough, and also displace the hanging wall ores. High-angle normal faults are the dominant structures at the southern end of the trough, progressively displacing the contact ore down to the east.
The contact ores change physically and chemically from north to south. In the north, the Main contact massive sulphides predominate with matrix sulphides becoming more dominant to the south, whilst thin massive matrix-disseminated zones occurring on the Lunnon East contact. The average grades in the massive ore on the main contact are 7 to 8% Ni, with 10 to 12% Ni common on Lunnon East contacts. Metal concentrations are higher close to the Main Shear fault sytem. Hanging wall mineralisation has a higher tenor, with massive ore grading up to 20% Ni. Most hanging-wall ore is associated with the second flow unit, although minor mineralisation also occurs at the base of the third unit. Contact sediments have a well defined antithetic relationship with ore, with a section of barren contact occurring each side of the trough structure before sediments develop. The only contact ore associated with sedimentary rocks occurs distal to the east contact, where massive ore is found interlayered between two different types of sediment. Hanging-wall ore is frequently stratigraphically equivalent to sedimentary rocks, and in some locations on the eastern margin of the main hanging-wall ore zones the ore and sediments interfinger. This Lunnon description is from Gresham and Loftus Hills (1981).
Subsequent to the development and mining of original deposits of the Kambalda Dome and the exhaustion of many, operations have commenced at the Miitel, Mariners, Redross, Wannaway, Cassini and Carnilya Hill Mines, while Kambalda Dome deposits such as the Coronet/McCloy, Otter-Juan and the McMahon have continued production.
A relatively recent discovery, in 2008, was the Moran deposit which is 1.1 km south of the Long orebody in the Long Victor Complex, on the eastern imb of the Kambalda Dome. It is one of the least disrupted on the Kambalda Dome, with no large faults and only thin later magmatic dykes. The first komatiite flow overlying the Moran orebody is ~90 m thick in the centre of the host embayment, thinning to ~10 m along the flanks of the lava channel. The deposit lies within the elliptical Moran embayment which is ~660 m long, varying between 50 and 120 m wide. It is as much as 40 m thick due to thermo-mechanical erosion by the sulphide melt (Staude et al., 2017). Lateral erosion during embayment formation is also evident, resulting in the pinchout of sulphides that had intruded the basalt (Staude et al., 2016). The pinchout completely surrounds the orebody and extends between 5 and 25 m laterally into the older basalt. The massive sulphides (i.e., >90% sulphide content) are up to 4 m thick in the pinchout, whereas they are only ~20 cm thick in the centre of the orebody. The contact between the massive sulphides and the older basalt is regarded as a good example of a sulphide silicate melting-infiltration front (Barnes et al. 2018), characterised by an assemblage of well-preserved igneous textures, including: i). undulating basal contacts with sulphide-filled micro-fractures and ferrichromite layers, ii). basalt-sulphide breccia-emulsions and basalt plumes along basal contacts, iii). basalt-sulphide emulsions on basal and upper pinchout contacts and iv). cm-scale silicate-sulphide layering and a floating vesicular basalt 'scum layer' on the upper pinchout contacts. These textures are interpreted to be the result of thermo-mechanical erosion of the basalt by the sulphide liquid (Groves et al., 1986; Staude et al., 2016, 2017). In the main central section of the embayment, distal to the marginal pinchouts, a thin massive sulphide layer is overlain by net-textured sulphides (or 'matrix sulphides' of Barnes et al. 2017). This involves sulphides forming a network surrounding the former, now serpentinised, olivine cumulate framework. Two layers of net-textured sulphides occur the Moran deposit unlike other similar deposits. The basal net-textured sulphide layer I is in direct contact with underlying massive sulphides and is up to 3 m thick in the centre of the embayment, diminishing towards the pinchout. The second net-textured sulphide layer II is separated from the first layer by a 30 to 50 cm thick planar layer of barren komatiite, and is thickest, up to 5 m, in the central area, thinning towards the pinchout. However, some interlayering with the barren komatiite is evident. Layer II also has an internal, centimetre scale layering as the result of varying proportions of sulphides, whilst net-textured sulphide layer I is more homogeneous, other than in its upper 6 to 8 cm. A thin 200 x 80 m massive sulphide body is preserved within the channel, on the flank of the Moran embayment. Proximal to the centre of the embayment, sulphides are located directly above the Lunnon Basalt, whilst in more distal locations, they overly the sediments. Igneous textures are preserved along the base of this sulphide body as sediment-sulphide melt emulsions (Staude et al., 2017). Most of the flanking sulphides do not have net-textured sulphides above them, except within 10 to 20 m of the embayment, where up to 30 cm of net-textured ore is present.
As of 30 June, 2010 the Ore Reserves and Mineral Resources of the then newly discovered Moran deposit was (Bonwick, Independence Group presentation, October, 2010):
Mineral Resource, Indicated - 0.494 Mt @ 7.2% Ni; Inferred - 0.052 Mt @ 7.1% Ni; TOTAL - 0.546 Mt @ 7.2% Ni (1% Ni cut-off);
Ore reserves, Proved + Probable - 0.739 Mt @ 4.4% Ni (economic cut-off) - Included in Mineral Resource.
This Moran summary is drawn from Staude, Oelze and Markl, 2022, as cited below.
The Mariners, Miitel, Redross and Wannaway deposits, which produced at a rate of around 440 000 tonnes of ore per annum in 2005-06, at grades of 2.2 to 2.9% Ni, occur on the flanks of the Widgiemooltha Dome and have a very similar geology to the deposits of the Kambalda Dome.
At Miitel, which is representative of the Widgiemooltha Dome deposits, faulting has repeated the lower contact zone of mineralisation which has a lateral extent of 15 km. The main Miitel deposit is a sheet-like body of sulphides lying on the basalt contact. It consists of three parallel, elongated ore zones which dip at about 80° to the east, and plunge at 35° to the south. The largest and highest grade of these, the central ore zone, has dimensions of approximately 1000 metres along plunge, 50-120 metres in dip-direction, and 1-3 metres thick.
The orebody at Miitel comprises a lower 0.2 to 1.5 m thickness of massive (essentially 100%) sulphides, the most abundant of which are pyrrhotite (~50%), pentlandite (~35%), and minor amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite, chromite and magnetite, with a grade of 10 to 14% Ni. Lesser millerite zones are also present. The massive sulphides lie directly on basalts and are overlain in turn by up to 1.5 m of matrix sulphides, which consist of a net-textured rock composed of intermixed silicate (mainly olivine) of the host and interstitial sulphides. Grade range from 3 to 8% Ni. The matrix sulphides pass upwards into a zone of disseminated sulphides comprising a fine-grained (0.5 to 2 mm) sprinkling of sulphides scattered throughout the ultramafic host rock carrying 0.5 to 2.0% Ni. This zone usually has a gradational upper boundary with the unmineralised overlying host rock.
The Mariners deposit is longitudinally arcuate and is characterised by a high As content of up to 30 000 ppm and Ni-As sulphides such as gersdorffite and niccolite, as well as PGE group elements, particularly Pd, and has a medium Ni tenor of 8 to 12%. It has an erratic thickness variation and continuity, with a series of pods and the presence of a 25 m thick pyrrhotitic sedimentary unit in the hangingwall.
The Cassini deposit is located towards the southeastern extremity of the Widgiemooltha Dome in an area of intense deformation. The first high grade intersection into the deposit was made in 2014, with follow up drilling defining nickel sulphide mineralisation in a structurally complex system of channels distributed over a strike length of ~430 m. Mineralisation occurs as linear and pod-like features containing a high-MgO amphibole + magnesite + talc assemblage at the base of an ultramafic succession that is up to 300 m thick. Pervasive talc carbonate alteration occurs throughout the ultramafic succession, almost completely obliterating primary textures. The principal mineralised channel, CS2, together with adjacent ore zones has been deformed to form a series of post-depositional isoclinal to recumbent folds that have been drag folded and sheared. This has resulted in local structural thickening, with in some placers, massive sulphides remobilised from the basal contact into the hanging wall. The mineralised system plunges at ~60°S (Hatfield et al., 2017).
At Helmut, in the Tramway Belt, the deposit occurs within talc-magnesite-magnetite altered olivine cumulate rocks located 3 to 7 m above the footwall basalt contact. The host flow is up to 110 m thick and 400 m wide, one of the largest channelised olivine cumulate flows of the Kambalda district. It is overlain by interflow sulphidic to carbonaceous to cherty sediments and passes laterally into strongly brecciated flow units of the flanking facies. The ore deposit is predominantly disseminated to matrix mineralisation, with a low Ni tenor, which increases from <5 to 8-12% as the total sulphide content increases. The ore profile is composed of a small core of massive sulphide which passes outwards into matrix and then disseminated sulphide mineralisation.
The Blair deposit in the Golden Ridge-Carnilya Hill Belt, is immediately underlain by up to 15 m of carbonaceous pelites, epidosites and cherts, rather than tholeiitic basalts which are stratigraphically below these sediments. The Carnilya Hill, in the same belt, has a high tenor of 10 to 16% Ni. It comprises massive mineralisation within an up to 20 m thick low Mg amphibole-chlorite altered picrite and pyroxenite unit which underlies across a sharp contact, un-mineralised, high-Mg talc-chlorite altered komatiitic olivine cumulate.
Historical mining and reserve figures for the Kambalda Dome deposits to 1997 and to 2010 are listed above. In 1997 proven and probable reserves totalled 10.5 Mt while resources amounted to an additional >20 Mt of comparable grades.
To 1999, reserves plus production amounted to 70 Mt @ 2.9% Ni. The 8 biggest orebodies varied in size from 0.9 to 10 Mt at grades of 2.3 to 3.9% Ni. The operation was originally owned by WMC Limited - 100% until acquired by Mincor Resources in 2001.
In June 2004 reserves + resources totalled 3.85 Mt @ 3.2% Ni.
At June 2007, total measured + indicated + inferred resources totalled: 3.72 Mt @ 3.9% Ni.
This included total proved + probable reserves of 2.243 Mt @ 2.8% Ni. (Source Mincor, 2008)
The resource figures comprised: Mariners - 0.784 Mt @ 4.0% Ni; Redross - 0.276 Mt @ 3.7% Ni; North Doordie - 0.151 Mt @ 1.5% Ni; Miitel - 1.096 Mt @ 3.6% Ni; Wannaway - 0.073 Mt @ 2.6% Ni; Carnilya Hill - 0.230 Mt @ 4.9% Ni (Mincors 70% of total resource); Otter Juan - 0.404 Mt @ 4.9% Ni; McMahon/Ken - 0.392 Mt @ 4.0% Ni; Durkin - 0.285 Mt @ 4.6% Ni; Gellatly - 0.029 Mt @ 3.4% Ni.
As at 30 June 2012, total measured + indicated + inferred resources totalled: 3.557 Mt @ 3.7% Ni.
This included total proved + probable reserves of 0.747 Mt @ 3.5% Ni. (Source Mincor, 2013)
The measured + indicated + inferred resource figures comprised: Mariners - 0.521 Mt @ 4.5% Ni; Redross - 0.244 Mt @ 3.2% Ni; Burnett - 0.219 Mt @ 3.6% Ni; Miitel - 0.771 Mt @ 3.6% Ni; Wannaway - 0.126 Mt @ 3.1% Ni; Carnilya Hill - 0.080 Mt @ 3.0% Ni (Mincors 70% of total resource); Otter Juan - 0.211 Mt @ 3.8% Ni; McMahon/Ken/Coronet - 0.340 Mt @ 3.6% Ni; Durkin - 0.366 Mt @ 5.1% Ni; Gellatly - 0.029 Mt @ 3.4% Ni; Stockwell - 0.554 Mt @ 3.0% Ni; Cameron - 0.096 Mt @ 3.3% Ni.
As at 30 June 2020, total measured + indicated + inferred resources totalled: 5.203 Mt @ 3.8% Ni.
This included total proved + probable reserves of 2.303 Mt @ 2.8% Ni. (Source Mincor, 2021)
The measured + indicated + inferred resource figures comprised:
Cassini - 1.476 Mt @ 4.0% Ni;
Long - 0.791 Mt @ 4.1% Ni;
Redross - 0.244 Mt @ 3.2% Ni;
Burnett - 0.241 Mt @ 4.0% Ni;
Miitel - 0.591 Mt @ 3.1% Ni;
Wannaway - 0.126 Mt @ 3.1% Ni;
Carnilya Hill - 0.073 Mt @ 2.8% Ni (Mincors 70% of total resource);
Otter Juan - 0.053 Mt @ 4.3% Ni;
McMahon/Ken - 0.262 Mt @ 3.7% Ni;
Durkin North - 0.427 Mt @ 5.2% Ni;
Durkin Oxide - 0.176 Mt @ 3.0% Ni;
Gellatly - 0.029 Mt @ 3.4% Ni;
Voyce - 0.064 Mt @ 5.2% Ni;
Cameron - 0.096 Mt @ 3.3% Ni.
Stockwell - 0.554 Mt @ 3.0% Ni;
The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2017.
Record last updated: 9/4/2021
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
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Barnes S J, Heggie G J and Fiorentini M L 2013 - Spatial Variation in Platinum Group Element Concentrations in Ore-Bearing Komatiite at the Long-Victor Deposit, Kambalda Dome, Western Australia: Enlarging the Footprint of Nickel Sulfide Orebodies : in Econ. Geol. v. 46 pp. 913-933|
Barnes, S.J., Beresford, S.W. and Le Vaillant, M., 2016 - Interspinifex Ni Sulfide Ore from the Coronet Shoot, Kambalda: Characterization Using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence Mapping and 3-D X-Ray Computed Tomography: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 1509-1517|
Begg, G.C., Hronsky, J.A.M., Arndt, N.T., Griffin, W.L., O Reilly, S.Y. and Hayward, N., 2010 - Lithospheric, Cratonic, and Geodynamic Setting of Ni-Cu-PGE Sulfide Deposits: in Econ. Geol. v.105, pp. 1057-1070.|
Beresford S, Stone W E, Cas R, Lahaye Y and Jane M, 2005 - Volcanological Controls on the Localization of the Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) Coronet Deposit, Kambalda, Western Australia: in Econ. Geol. v100 pp 1457-1467|
Cowden A 1988 - Emplacement of Komatiite lava flows and associated Nickel Sulfides at Kambalda, Western Australia: in Econ. Geol. v83 pp 436-442|
Cowden A, Donaldson M J, Naldrett A J, Campbell I H 1986 - Platinum-group elements and Gold in the Komatiite-hosted Fe-Ni-Cu Sulfide deposits at Kambalda, Western Australia: in Econ. Geol. v81 pp 1226-1235|
Cowden A, Roberts D E 1995 - Komatiite Hosted Nickel Sulphide Deposits, Kambalda: in Hughes F E (Ed), Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, The AusIMM, Melbourne v1 pp 567-581|
Gresham J J, Loftus-Hills G D 1981 - The geology of the Kambalda Nickel Field, Western Australia: in Econ. Geol. v76 pp 1373-1416|
Hill R E T, Barnes S J, Gole M J, Dowling S E 1990 - Komatiites in the Kambalda Area: in Physical Volcanology of Komatiites, A Field Guide to the Komatiites of the Norseman-Wiluna Greenstone Belt, Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Block, Western Australia Excursion Guide Book No. 1, GSA (WA Division), Perth pp 20-24|
Johnson, D.M. Sheppard, S., Paggi, J. and Coggon, J., 2010 - Discovery of the Moran massive nickel sulphide deposit using down-hole transient electromagnetic surveying: in ASEG 2010 Conference - Sydney, Australia, ASEG Extended Abstracts, 4p.|
Mamuse A, Porwal A, Kreuzer O and Beresford S, 2010 - Spatial Statistical Analysis of the Distribution of Komatiite-Hosted Nickel Sulfide Deposits in the Kalgoorlie Terrane, Western Australia: Clustered or Not?: in Econ. Geol. v105 pp 229-242|
Marston R J, Kay B D 1980 - The distribution, petrology and genesis of nickel ores at the Juan Complex, Kambalda, Western Australia: in Econ. Geol. v75 pp 546-565|
Marston, R.J., Groves, D.I., Hudson, D.R. and Ross, J.R., 1981 - Nickel sulfide deposits in Western Australia: a review: in Econ. Geol. v.76, pp. 1330-1363.|
Naldrett A J 1999 - World Class Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: Key Factors in their Genesis: in Mineralium Deposita v34 pp 227-240|
Ross J R, Hopkins G M F 1975 - Kambalda Nickel Sulphide deposits: in Knight C L, (Ed.), 1975 Economic Geology of Australia & Papua New Guinea The AusIMM, Melbourne Mono 5 pp 100-121|
Song, X., Wang, Y. and Chen, L., 2011 - Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits in magma plumbing systems: Features, formation and exploration: in Geoscience Frontiers v.2, pp. 375-384.|
Staude, S., Oelze, M. and Markl, G., 2022 - Multi-stage sulfide evolution of the Moran Ni sulfide ore, Kambalda, Western Australia: insights into the dynamics of ore forming processes of komatiite-hosted deposits: in Mineralium Deposita v.57, pp. 889-909.|
Stone W E, Archibald N J, 2004 - Structural controls on nickel sulphide ore shoots in Archaean komatiite, Kambalda, WA: the volcanic trough controversy revisited: in J. of Structural Geology v26 pp 1173-1194|
Stone W E, Beresford S W and Archibald N J, 2005 - Structural Setting and Shape Analysis of Nickel Sulfide Shoots at the Kambalda Dome, Western Australia: Implications for Deformation and Remobilization: in Econ. Geol. v100 pp 1441-1455|
Stone W E, Masterman E E 1998 - Kambalda Nickel Deposits: in Berkman D A, Mackenzie D H (Eds), Geology of Australian and Papua New Guinean Mineral Deposits The AusIMM, Melbourne pp 347-356|
Straude, S., Barnes, S.J. and Markl, G., 2021 - Interspinifex Ni sulfide ore from Victor South-McLeay, Kambalda, Western Australia: in Mineralium Deposita v.56, pp. 125-142.|
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