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East Jiaodong Gold Field - Rushan, Pengjiakuang, Muping (Denggezhuang, Heiniutai), Jinqingding, Guocheng (Tudui, Shawang, Longkou, Dongliujia, Liaoshang), Sanjia, Xipo, Yinggezhuang
Shandong, China
Main commodities: Au

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The Rushan, Pengjiakuang, Muping (Denggezhuang and Heiniutai), Jinqingding, Guocheng (Tudui, Shawang, Longkou, Dongliujia, Liaoshang), Sanjia, Yinggezhuang and Xipo gold deposits are located within the Muping-Rushan Gold Belt, which comprises the eastern section of the extensive Jiaodong Gold Province on the Jiaodong Peninsular of Shandong Province, northern China, ~500 km south-east of Beijing. See the West Jiaodong Gold Fields record that describes the deposits of the Zhaoyuan-Laizhou and Penglai-Qixia gold belts to its northeast.
  Latest updates 14-Jul-2022 = addition of Guocheng and 21-July-2022 = Muping descriptions - see links above.
The Jiaodong Peninsular is on the southeastern portion of the North China craton, immediately north of the easternmost part of the ultra-high pressure belt that marks the Late Permian to Early Jurassic suture between with the Yangtze craton to the south. It is made up of a sequence that includes the late Archaean (2.94 to 2.67 Ga with 3.0 to 3.4 Ga components) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite and mafic to felsic volcanic and sedimentary rocks all of which have been subjected to amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism to form the granulite, gneiss, amphibolite and biotite-bearing schists of the Jiaodong Group. These Archaean rocks are unconformably overlain by a Proterozoic sequence comprising:
i). The Paleoproterozoic Jinshan Group, which is composed of a sequence of mainly silty clastics and calcareous-magnesian carbonates with intercalated mafic to ultramafic volcanics which have all been metamorphosed to a suite of mica schist, quartz-feldspar-biotite gneiss, marbles and graphitic rocks.
ii). The Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan Group, comprising fine-grained gneiss, mica-quartz schist, feldspathic quartzite, magnetite-bearing rocks, marble and graphitic rocks that are the result of upper greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism of silty clastic sediments, Mg-rich carbonates, and calcareous clastics and pelites.
These two groups were deposited between 2484 and 2381 Ma and metamorphosed during from 2224 to 1847 Ma (Luliang orogeny) and are overlain by,
iii). The Neoproterozoic lower greenschist facies limestones, dolomite, slate and phyllite of the Panglai Group.

All of these rocks have been subjected to multiple stages of granulite- to greenschist-facies metamorphism over the timespan 2945 to 1674 Ma.   They are overlain by Mesozoic shales, clastics and volcanics and are intruded by voluminous Mesozoic (Jurassic to Cretaceous) Yanshanian age granitoid intrusives which occupy over 40% of the terrane emplaced in two episodes, 164 to 155 and 130 to 126 Ma, the first of which is largely due to anatectic reactivation of the basement rocks.

Two main stages of deformation have been defined in the Jiaodong gold province during the late Mesozoic, the first of which was dominated by NW-SE oblique compression, producing a series of NNE- to NE-trending brittle-ductile shear zones with sinistral oblique reverse movements, followed by a later reactivation, expressed by brittle structures and half-graben basins. These structures are believed to be subsidiary to the major Tan-Lu fault.

The Rushan deposit (37° 06'N, 121° 38'E) is hosted by intrusive assemblages, comprising the following granitoid intrusions:

i). The Kunyushan monzogranite which outcrops over an area of around 1000 sq. km and is the most important host to gold mineralisation in the area and has been dated at 157 ±4 Ma and 160 ±3 Ma. It intrudes Archaean Jiaodong Group metamorphics and contains abundant xenoliths of Archean amphibolite. It consists of quartz (36%), plagioclase (34%), K-feldspar (18%), biotite (1%) with traces of hornblende, and accessories including zircon, apatite, magnetite and titanite;
ii). The Sanfoshan porphyritic granite (K-Ar age of 99 Ma), intrudes the Kunyushan monzogranite;
iii). A dyke swarm which range in compositions from diorite to lamprophyre and intruded the Kunyushan monzogranite.

The Rushan deposit is structurally controlled by the Jiangjunshi fault, which is more than 50 km long, NNE striking and 1 to 15 m wide, which cuts the Kunyushan monzogranite and dips at 75 to 90° SE to NW.

The deposit comprises 13 auriferous quartz vein lodes, with reserves of 30 to 40 t Au. The largest is Lode 2 which contains 25 t Au and is 450 m long, ranging in thickness from 0.3 to 7 m with an average of 2.7 m. It is continuous over a down dip interval of more than1000 m between RL 120 and 900 m. Grades vary from 3 to 40 g/t, averaging approximately 20 g/t, although locally bonanza grades of 240 to 318 g/t Au are encountered. The four richest shoots with >30 g/t Au are separated by a 200 to 250 m lower grade intervals down dip. Lodes 3 and 4 contain the second and third largest reserves of 2.1 and 1.1 t Au, respectively, occurring in the hanging wall (lode 3) and footwall (lode 4) of the larger lode 2.

The ore comprises 12 to 15% sulphide minerals, with pyrite being the most abundant, accompanied by lesser amounts of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite, and bornite. It occurs as densely disseminated aggregates and irregular veins intergrown with quartz. Siderite locally accompanies quartz, galena and sphalerite within the ore, while tellurides are also present, including tellurobismuth, altite, calcaverite and botesite. Native gold, electrum and kustelite occur as inclusions within pyrite and other sulphides, as interstitial infillings in pyrite or as individual grains along cleavage planes of sericite and muscovite.

Multi-stage hydrothermal alteration has been observed, largely restricted to fault zones, including sericitisation, silicification, K-feldspathisation and sulphidation. Sericitisation is characterised by the complete replacement of plagioclase and partial alteration of K-feldspar with fine-grained sericite and locally coarse-grained muscovite. Sericitisation is accompanied by pyrite and fine-grained quartz, which locally form thin veinlets and fill vugs, and is followed by the precipitation of abundant sulphide minerals. The hydrothermal alteration is zoned, with a core of quartz, grading outward into quartz-pyrite, sulphides, sericite-quartz-pyrite, and an outer zone of K-feldspar. The sericite-quartz-pyrite and massive sulphide zones are the most important hosts for gold.

The Pengjiakuang gold deposit (37° 05'N, 121°16'E) is located about 25 km northwest of the city of Rushan and occupies an area of 5.73 sq. km.

The principal units in the Pengjiakuang area, include:

i). Paleoproterozoic Jinshan Group metamorphics comprising quartz-feldspar schist, mica schist, plagioclase gneiss and marble,
ii). continental sediments of the Early Cretaceous Laiyang Formation which is dominated by conglomerate with minor amounts of sandstone, totalling more than 1500 m in thickness,
iii). gneissic granite pluton of the Queshan granite which outcrops few hundred metres to the NE of the Pengjiakuang deposit.
iv). a number of mafic to intermediate dykes which intrude the sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks.

The Pengjiakuang deposit is estimated to contain >30 t Au at an average grade of 4.5 g/t Au. The ore is structurally controlled by the NW trending Yazi fault, which is more than 5000 m long, 20 to 50 m wide, dips at 10 to 35° S and follows the contact between the Paleoproterozoic quartz-feldspar schist and the plagioclase gneisses or mica schists. The deposit is made up of three lodes, hosted by a cataclastic zone along the Yazi fault, to form a discontinuous WNW striking belt.

The dominant mineral assemblage in all three lodes is sericite, quartz, pyrite and calcite, with lesser K-feldspar, chlorite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite. Sulphides average 4 to 6% by volume, although Lode 2 is characterised by more abundant sulphides. Au is predominantly within pyrite which typically occurs as sub- to euhedral cubes and irregular disseminated aggregates and grains ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm in size that commonly show intense deformation, with micro-fractures filled by galena, sphalerite, gold and sericite-quartz veinlets. Gold is mostly present as electrum and minor native gold, occurring as small inclusions in pyrite and, less commonly, in quartz as irregular infillings or grains in micro-fractures of sulphides, and as individual grains along cleavage planes in sericite.

Hydrothermal alteration, which is contiguous with the mineralisation, has affected almost the entire cataclastic zone of the Yazi fault. Sericitisation is the most pervasive alteration throughout the alteration zone, and is associated with disseminated sulphides and veins. Fine sericite is found as well defined selvages surrounding pyrite and quartz veins and as veins filling micro-fractures in K-feldspar. Calcite commonly crosscuts fine-grained sericite-quartz assemblages, while a late stage of sericitisation is principally composed of coarse-grained muscovite veins, associated mainly with mosaic-textured quartz. K-feldspar and chlorite are found at depth below the160 m RL within the outer parts of the cataclasitic zone.

The Guocheng-Liaoshang Gold Belt which is ~27 km NW of the city of Rushan, comprises a 15 km long cluster of five mining areas distributed along the Guocheng Fault, and include, from south to north Tudui-Shawang (which together comprise the Guocheng deposit), Dongliujia, Longkou and Liaoshang.
NOTE: Wu et al. (2021) describe the Longkou-Tudui deposit. It is uncertain if this refers to the separate Longkou deposit to the north of Guocheng (Tudui-Shawang) or is a combination of mineralisation in both Longkou and Guocheng. The description below is in two parts. The first is mainly based on Wu et al. (2021) covering Longkou-Tudui as an example of a deposit in the Guocheng-Liaoshang Gold Belt and its setting. The second part is a more generalised description of the mineralisartion of the belt. This belt is located in the SW section of the greater Muping-Rushan Gold Belt and appears to be spatially associated with the Palaeoproterozoic Muniushan monzogranite. The mineralisation style, particularly the massive sulphides, differ from the Linglong and Jiaojia type ores characteristic of the Jaiodong Peninsular deposits.

The sedimentary country rocks of the district surrounding the Guocheng-Liaoshang Gold Belt comprise the Palaeoproterozoic Jingshan and Mesozoic Laiyang groups, as well as the Quaternary cover which is well developed across the ore field. The Jingshan Group, which outcrops along the Guocheng Fault and dips at 40 to 60°SE, is composed of biotite granulite, amphibolite, diopside marble, serpentinised marble, dolomitic marble, graphite-bearing biotite schist, with locally developed foliations and felsic bands (Jahn et al., 2008). The Laiyang Group, is ~1000 m thick and occurs to the west of the deposit. It comprises conglomerate, siltstone and sandstone, with local mud crack and convolution structure (Tan et al., 2015). The Quaternary cover includes conglomeratic clay, silty sand and sandy clay, and varies from ~1 to 5 m in thickness (Zhao et al., 2018).

The magmatic rocks in the surrounding district comprise the Palaeoproterozoic Muniushan monzogranite, Cretaceous Haiyangshan granite, the Yashan monzogranite and a dioritic porphyrite. The Muniushan monzogranite is the most extensive. It has a reddish colouration and is massive, composed of ~45 vol.% K feldspar, ~30 vol.% quartz, ~20 vol.% plagioclase and ~5 vol.% biotite, with weak sericitisation. It was emplaced during the Palaeoproterozoic and was metamorphosed at ~1.85 Ga (Cheng et al., 2017). The Cretaceous Haiyangshan granite is a K feldspar rich intrusive, mainly composed of felsic minerals which also include quartz and biotite, and was emplaced at 117 ±2 Ma (Li et al., 2014). The Yashan monzogranite is exposed to the NW of Longkou-Tudui gold deposit, and appears to have been emplaced at 113 ±2 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP Zircon; Goss et al., 2010). It is composed of quartz, plagioclase, K feldspar, biotite and hornblende, and has an I-type affinity (Goss et al., 2010). The dioritic porphyrite is composed of plagioclase and hornblende, with weak sericite and epidote alteration. It cross-cuts the host-rock, the Muniushan monzogranite and gold mineralisation, and includes some host-rock xenoliths, all of which indicate it postdates the gold mineralisation.

The structure of the Longkou-Tudui deposit grouping is dominated by both NE and NW trending faults. The regional, 10 to 20 m wide, NE-trending Guocheng Fault is located to the west of the deposits. It is interpreted to be a transpressional fault that extends over a strike length of >40 km and dips ~70°NW (Tan et al., 2015). Secondary NE-trending fractures that are associated with the Guocheng Fault are widespread across the deposit area and cross-cut many of the granitoids of all ages. They can be divided into i). moderately-dipping fractures that dip at between 20 and 40°; are characterised by silica, sulphide and other alteration assemblages, and host the most economic gold mineralisation; and ii). steeply-dipping fractures with dips of 60 to 80° and only carry low grade mineralisation (Tan et al., 2015). NE-striking faults, which are 2 to 20 m thick and dip at 65 to 70°SW, are more common than NW trending structures in the deposit area. The latter cross-cut magmatic rocks, gold mineralisation and other faults, and hence are regarded to be late stage structures.

The Longkou-Tudui gold deposit is made up of 215 mineralised lodes, all of which are controlled by NE-trending faults and secondary fractures. The host rocks to mineralisation are the Jingshan Group metasediments and Muniushan monzogranite, both of which are of Palaeoproterozoic age. Mineralisation occurs as veins, lenses and layered bodies within the Muniushan monzogranite, whilst in the Jingshan Group they are found as veins, breccias, bifurcated veins and irregular-shaped masses. The lodes are mostly offset or deformed by late-stage faults and dykes, and as such are very discontinuous. Seven major lodes were being economically mined in 2021. These seven lodes dip at 10 to 30°NW in a direction that varies from 250 to 310°, and extend over strike lengths of 130 to 800 m and 100 to 342 m down-dip direction. Thicknesses vary from 1.8 to 17.6 m, with grades of 1.4 to 3.6 g/t Au.

Widespread hydrothermal alteration accompanies the mineralisation, including: silica, potassic, chlorite, sericite and carbonate assemblages, of which silicification is most closely associated with gold mineralisation. However, late-stage structural deformation has hindered an understanding of the zonation of hydrothermal alteration. Ore paragenesis has been divided into the following stages:
Stage I - pre-ore quartz-pyrite, which deposited abundant euhedral white quartz [Qtz 1] with large, 0.6 to 1.5 mm disseminated euhedral pyrite grains [Py 1], with locally-developed broken textures.
Stage II - quartz-sericite-pyrite-gold, the main gold mineralisation event, characterised by quartz [Qtz 2], subhedral to anhedral, 0.02 to 1.2 mm pyrite [Py 2], native gold, calcite [Cal 1], and scarce sulphides, including pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, with intensive potassic alteration, sericitisation, and chloritisation). Qtz 2 is irregular, has a smoky colour and is closely associated with potassic alteration, sericitisation and chloritisation. Native gold occurs as 0.03 to 0.1 mm anhedral grains, most of which are are inclusions, or hosted within, Py 2), with a minority in Qtz 2. Cal 1 coexists with pyrite. Pyrrhotite occurs as 0.02 to 0.05 mm anhedral, and disseminated grains, and locally grows around pre-formed pyrites.
Stage III - quartz-sulphide, which has less native gold, quartz, sericite and pyrite [Py 3], but contains massive calcite [Cal 2], with trace chalcopyrite. In contrast to earlier pyrite, Py 3 occurs as anhedral aggregates of 0.05 to 0.3 mm grains. Some sulphide minerals, such as chalcopyrite, filling fractures within Py 3. Cal 2 was intensely developed in associated with the Py 3.
Stage IV - post-ore carbonate stage, composed of abundant calcite [Cal 3] and dolomite, with cabonate and chlorite alteration

Despite being spatially associated with the the Palaeoproterozoic Muniushan monzogranite, when compared with other Jiaodong Gold Province deposits, Longkou-Tudui does not differ in mineralisation age, nature and evolution of ore-forming fluid, and source of ore-forming materials, except from the ore style and heavier δ34S values that were inherited from the host Jingshan Group. It has been interpreted to be a byproduct of fluids generated as products of oceanic subduction of the Paleo Pacific Ocean.

The Longkou-Tudui gold deposit has reserves of >16 t of contained gold in ore with an average grade of 3.0 g/t Au (Wu et al., 2021). The Tudui-Shawang grouping is quoted as containing 28 t of Au, while Liaoshang has 69 t of Au (Tan et al., 2021).
The Longkou-Tudui summary is drawn from Wu et al., 2021.

Tan et al. (2021) describing the Guocheng-Liaoshang Gold Belt overall, writes that the lodes are controlled by fault/fracture patterns and have been mined or prospected from the surface to a depths of ~600. They form lodes, lenses and stringers, with sharp contact between veins and wall rocks. Individual veins are 100 to 1000 m long and 0.5 to 11 m in width, persisting for 50 to 300 m down dip. Most strike NNE to ENE, and dip at 15 to 25, and locally to 35°NW, or 40 to 60°SE. Some are NW or ~east-west oriented. Mineralisation preferentially occurs in dilational jogs or bends, and at changes in attitude from steep to shallow (Goldfarb et al., 2005; Li et al., 2012). The ores are dominated by fault-hosted massive sulphides, with subordinate veinlet, net-textured and disseminated ores in wall rocks adjacent to the main lodes, with average grades of 1 to 84 g/t Au, and local bonanza grades of up to hundreds of g/t. Most ores have uniform massive texture, and do not show laminated textures as is common in the usual Linglong and Jiaojia type deposits of the Jiaodong Peninsular (Li et al., 2006). The fault/fracture-filling massive sulphide style mineralisation is dominates, although minor carbonate-quartz veins are also developed in the adamellite with an average width of several centimetres, containing <5 vol.% sulphides, but are of no economic importance. Sulphide minerals account for 40 to 95 vol.% of the ores, dominated by pyrite and pyrrhotite with lesser chalcopyrite, galena and marcasite. Masses or disseminations of pyrite and pyrrhotite can been subdivided into two types: i). Type 1 - coarse-grained, 0.3 to 1 cm diameter, euhedral to subhedral, with a pyritohedral, octahedral or cubic form. Micro-fractures are well developed and often filled by other sulphide minerals and quartz. ii). Type 2, comprising fine to medium grained, euhedral to anhedral grains, which are usually intergrown with chalcopyrite, galena and native gold. Chalcopyrite, one of the subordinate ore-related mineralisation phases, is usually fine-grained, anhedral, and locally forms thin veinlets and fills vugs. Galena and marcasite account for <1 vol.% and are usually in textural equilibration with other fine-grained alteration phases. Wall-rock alteration is onlyweakly developed on both margins of lodes, commonly only 0.2 to 1 m in width. Common alteration minerals include quartz, K feldspar, sericite, actinolite, chlorite and associated sulphides. Minor diopside, garnet, epidote, phlogopite and carbonate are also evident, although skarn alteration is not economically significant. Alteration assemblages are contiguous within mineralised veins but are absent distal from the controlling faults. Quartz, one of the most abundant ore-related alteration phases, is usually in textural equilibration with sulphides.

This generalised section of the summary of mineralisation of the Guocheng-Liaoshang Gold Belt is drawn from Tan et al. (2021)

The Sanjia gold deposit is ~12 km NE of Rushan City, and is associated with the north-south striking ore controlling Chahe-Sanjia fault. The main No. 1 orebody occurs between RL +180 and -840 m, strikes NNW over a length of ~520 m and persists over a distance of up to 1040 m down dip. The thickness of the orebody varies from 0.3 to 5.83 m, averaging 1.73 m. The grade is typically 2 to 16 g/t, averaging of 5.07 g/t. The ore mineral assemblage includes quartz-pyrite veining and 'beresite'. The deposit is hosted within the 146 to 138 Ma Washan monzogranite.
Summary after Chen, Deng and Ji (2022).
NOTE: Beresite is a metasomatic altered rock consisting of the quartz (25 to 50%), albite (5 to 25%), sericite (10 to 15%), carbonate (10%), that is also generally enriched in pyrite.

The Yinggezhuang gold deposit is located ~14 km NE of Rushan City and has a proven reserve of 9 t of contained gold (Chen, Deng and Ji, 2022). The ore-controlling Jinniushan fault trends north-south and dips 50 to 88°E. The orebodies extend from RL +163 to -410 m, with a north-south strike of 50 to 450 m and persist for up to 520 m down dip, with grades that are typically between 1.5 to 19 g/t Au. The ore is principally quartz sulphide vein and 'beresite' types. Amphibolite and gneiss occur as xenoliths in the deposit area. The deposit is hosted within the 157 to 163 Ma Wuzhuashan monzogranite, immediately adjacent to its contact with Archaean ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks.
Summary after Chen, Deng and Ji (2022).

The small Xipo gold deposit is located just over a kilometre to the south of the Yinggezhuang deposit and is also controlled by the north-south Jinniushan fault. The orebodies are ~700 m long and persist for up to ~280 m down a dip of 53 to 61°E. In the north, the main deposit is ~10 m thick. The deposit is hosted within Archaean ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks <100 m west of the contact with the 157 to 163 Ma Wuzhuashan monzogranite.
Summary after Chen, Deng and Ji (2022).

The Muping gold deposit is one of the largest in the Muping-Rushan Gold Belt and occurs in the northern half of that belt which constitutes the easternmost part of the Jiaodong Gold Province. The deposit lies ~50 km north of the city of Rushan and is exploited by the Denggezhuang and Heiniutai mines which have been in production since 1978 (Zhang et al., 2021). The deposit is hosted within the composite Late Jurassic Kunyushan granite, which can be divided into the: i). 161 ±1 Ma Duogushan granite, a medium grained weak gneissic granodiorite containing epidote; ii). 160 ±3 Ma Wuzhuashan granite, a fine to medium grained, weakly gneissic monzogranite, which is the immediate host of the Muping mineralisation; and iii). 146 to 138 Ma Washan granite, a medium grained weakly gneissic monzogranite (ages of all three, SHRIMP, zircon). The boundary between the Wuzhuashan and Washan granites is gradational. The intruded country rock comprises the regional basement 2.9 to 2.5 Ga Archaean tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, which are overlain by the Neoarchaean Jiaodong Group meta-igneous and metasedimentary rocks; and the Proterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups which comprise calc-silicates, schist, amphibolite and marble, and the Penglai Group slate, quartzite and marble, which are also of Proterozoic age.

The Heiniutai mine is located within the Jingniushan fault whilst the Denggezhuang mine is controlled by subsidiary faults to the west of the main fault. The deposit comprises a number of gold ore veins, the principal of which are Ore veins I and II. Ore vein I is split into two, vein I1which dips at 70 to 85°NW, and is 2200 m long, with a thickness of 0.5 to 1 m, becoming thicker where its dip angle flattens. Grades within vein I1 is 3.0 to 10.0 g/t, to a maximum up to 60 g/t Au, with a positive relationship between gold grade and orebody thickness (Hu et al., 2007). Ore vein I2 dips in the same direction as I1, but at a shallower angle of 30 to 60°, and a thickness normally of 0.4 to 1.2 m. The grade averages ~3.0 g/t with a maximum of 40 g/t Au. Ore vein II occurs in the middle part of the deposit, striking at 10°, dipping WNW, with a length of 1200 m, thickness that ranges from 1 to 2 m, and grade that ranges from 0 to 15 g/t Au (Hu et al., 2007). These veins converge and merge with depth.

Hydrothermal alteration styles includes potassic, sericitic, silicification and pyrite-sericite-quartz, characteristically zoned to form a strong pyrite-sericite-quartz selvage adjacent to the vein, grading out into sericitic and potassic assemblages. Potassic alteration is the earliest, characterized by the appearance of K feldspar that replaces or overgrows primary plagioclase (Cai et al., 2018). Phyllic/sericitic alteration is typified by partial or total replacement of biotite by sericite and transformation of plagioclase to sericite.

The major ore minerals include native gold, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. The principal gangue minerals comprise quartz, calcite, siderite, K feldspar and sericite, with minor barite. Four mineralisation stages and three types of pyrite have been recognised at Muping:
Stage I, pyrite-quartz veins that are dominated by milky white quartz and subordinate coarse-grained, euhedral to subhedral pyrite [Py1];
Stage II, quartz-pyrite veins that are characterised by smoky quartz and abundant subhedral pyrite [Py2] with minor visible gold and chalcopyrite occurring as inclusions. Sericite rich intervals that represent 'beresitisation' occurs inside or on both sides of the ore vein;
Stage III, quartz-polymetallic sulphide veins that are characterised by smoky quartz and various sulphides. These cut through the quartz-pyrite veins and have obvious quartz vug and geodes suggestive of open space filling. Pyrite [Py3] in this stage has been divided into Py3a, Py3band Py3c) based on the texture of pyrite. Py3a comprises very small pyrite grains that corroded pyrrhotite and dense disseminated pyrite with amounts of chalcopyrite, visible gold, sphalerite and galena depositing in fractures, grain boundaries or occur as inclusions. Py3b and Py3c can be distinguished, forming a core-rim texture. Py3b forms the core of the pyrite, with varying fractures and corroded pores filled with sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite and visible gold. In contrast, Py3c rarely has mineral inclusions, fractures and dissolved pores, and forms the rim of the pyrite. Some microscopic magnetite corroded Py3a has been observed in thin sections. Minor barite occurs with siderite filling in fractures of pyrite and matrix;
Stage IV is defined by quartz-calcite veins, which crosscut all other vein types and have pyrite relics of the previous mineralisation stage.

The Muping deposit has reserves of >50 t of contained gold in ore with a mean grade of 6.0 g/t Au ( Zhang et al., 2020).
This Muping summary is drawn from Zhang et al. (2020; 2021).

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2021.     Record last updated: 21/7/2022
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Chen, B., Deng, J. and Ji, X.,  2022 - Time Limit of Gold Mineralization in Muping-Rushan Belt, Eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China: Evidence from Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating: in    Minerals (MDPI)   v.12, 15p. doi.org/10.3390/min12030278.
de Boorder, H.,  2015 - The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.65, pp. 574-588.
Deng, J. and Wang, Q.,  2016 - Gold mineralization in China: Metallogenic provinces, deposit types and tectonic framework: in    Gondwana Research   v.36, pp. 219-274.
Deng, J., Wang, Q., Santosh, M., Liu, X., Liang, Y., Yang, L., Zhao., L. and Yang, L.,  2020 - Remobilization of metasomatized mantle lithosphere: a new model for the Jiaodong gold province, eastern China: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.55, pp. 257-274.
Groves, D. and Santosh, M.,  2016 - The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.7, pp. 409-417.
Hu, F.F., Fan, H.R., Zhai, M.G/ and Jin, C.W.,  2006 - Fluid evolution in the Rushan lode gold deposit of Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China: in    J. of Geochemical Exploration   v.89, pp. 161-164.
Li, J.-W., Vasconcelos P, Zhou, M.-F., Zhao, X.-F. and Ma, C.-Q.,  2006 - Geochronology of the Pengjiakuang and Rushan Gold Deposits, Eastern Jiaodong Gold Province, Northeastern China: Implications for Regional Mineralization and Geodynamic Setting: in    Econ. Geol.   v.101, pp. 1023-1038.
Li, X.-H., Fan, H.-R., Zhu, R.-X., Yang, K.-F., Yu, X.-F., Li, D.-P., Zhang, Y.-W., Ma, W.-D. and Feng, K.,  2022 - In-situ monazite Nd and pyrite S isotopes as fingerprints for the source of ore-forming fluids in the Jiaodong gold province: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.147, 10p. doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2022.104965
Liu, X.-Y., Tan, J., He, H.-Y. and Gan J.-R.,  2021 - Origin of the Tudui-Shawang gold deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, north China Craton: Constraints from fluid inclusion and H-O-He-Ar-S-Pb isotopic compositions: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.133, 18p. doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104125.
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Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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