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Voisey's Bay, Voiseys Bay
Labrador & Newfoundland, Canada
Main commodities: Ni Cu PGE PGM

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The Voisey's Bay nickel deposit is located on the Labrador coast of the Canadian Province of Labrador and Newfoundland, some 1500 km to the north-east of Montreal.

It is hosted by a 1334 Ma troctolite sheet belonging to the extensive 1350 to 1290 Ma Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) emplaced at the boundary between the Nain Archaean Province to the east and the NNW trending 1850 to 1730 Ma Torngat Orogen to the west. The Torngat Orogen is a zone of deformation separating the Nain Province from the Rae Archaean Province further to the west. Archaean granitic, quartzo-feldspathic and mafic orthogneisses of the Nain Province are found to the east at Voisey's Bay. In the west garnet-sillimanite, and sulphide and graphite bearing quartzo-feldspathic paragneisses represent both reworked Archaean gneisses, and Lower Proterozoic intrusives and shelf sediments of the Torngat Orogen.

The NPS is batholithic and covers some 20 000 sq. km in the district. It comprises a broad spectrum of compositions including anorthosite, granite, troctolite and ferro-diorite representing the episodic coalescence of multiple plutons in an extensional environment, tapping the mantle.

The troctolite host to the Voisey's Bay mineralisation comprises two east plunging intrusions, the lower Reid Brook and the upper Eastern Deeps intrusions. These originally had a 2 km vertical separation. They are linked by a steeply dipping dyke, the Feeder Sheet, that varies from 10 to 100 m in thickness. There are a number of different rock types within these three intrusive bodies, as follows:
i). The higher Eastern Deeps intrusive has an upper olivine-gabbro (OG), grading downwards progressively into a medium grained, even textured troctolite (NT), to a varied texture troctolite (VTT) containing wall rock clasts, to a basal breccia (BBS) at the base, composed of abundant clasts of wall rock and mafics in a troctolite gangue. Various of these lithologies are cut by syenite and granite dykes.
ii). The Feeder Sheet generally comprises the following across its thickness in the upper sections, from the hangingwall - an upper chill zone to an un-mineralised feeder olivine gabbro (FOG), to the leopard troctolite (LT) which has 30 to 50% interstitial sulphides with a sharp contact to a basal breccia (BBS) on the footwall. Lower, towards the Reid Brook intrusive, the BBS may occur anywhere in the feeder and grades into the feeder breccia (FB) which is similar, but much more packed, while the FOG and LT are concentric to massive sulphides, where developed.
iii). The Reid Brook intrusive - the confluence of the Feeder Sheet in the roof of the Reid Brook intrusive is commonly choked by feeder breccia (FB), which also extends for a distance along the roof of the intrusive. This is underlain by a varied texture troctolite (VTT), which grades into the LT of the feeder sheet. The main mass of the intrusive is a leuco troctolite (LUT) similar in some respects to the olivine gabbro of the Eastern Deeps intrusive. Again the intrusive is cut by granite dykes.

Economic mineralisation, mainly massive sulphides occurs both within the Feeder Sheet and at the base of the Eastern Deeps intrusive, adjacent to the entry point of the Feeder Sheet. Within the Feeder Sheet, massive sulphides are restricted to the wider sections and occur as a series of elongate lenses in the plane of the linking sheet, all raking to the east. These include the Mini-Ovoid orebody and the Discovery Hill zone which are within the leopard troctolite (LT), above the basal breccia (BBS). Further to the west and deeper in the Feeder Sheet, the Western Extensions comprise disseminated mineralisation grading towards the footwall into massive sulphides.

The richest body, the Ovoid occupies a 350x600 m basin shaped body that is up to 110 m deep at the thickest point, tapering upwards towards the margins. It overlies a thin band of leopard troctolite (LT) and basal breccia (BBS). This is interpreted to be a depression at the base of the Eastern Deeps intrusive, above the confluence with the Feeder Sheet. Other mineralisation, the Eastern Deeps, is also known from similar positions in the Eastern Deeps intrusive.

The massive sulphides of the Ovoid are 75% pyrrhotite (2 to 5 cm crystals), 12% pentlandite (1 to 2 cm eyes), with irregular chalcopyrite and cubanite. Magnetite is scattered through the pyrrhotite. Disseminated ores of the Western Extension are in a similar proportion, but finer.

The reserve at the Ovoid body is:   32 Mt @ 2.83% Ni, 1.68% Cu, 0.12% Co,
The indicated resource at Eastern Deeps is:   50 Mt @ 1.36% Ni, 0.67% Cu, 0.09% Co,:
The resource at Western Deeps is in excess of 15 to 20 Mt.
The total reserve + inferred and indicated resource was stated as 124.4 Mt @ 1.66% Ni at the end of 1998 and 77.6 Mt @ 2.28% Ni, 1.19% Cu, 0.13% Co in 2005.

The deposit is now in production (2005) and is owned by Inco Limited.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2000.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Amelin Y, Li C, Valeyev O, Naldrett A J  2000 - Nd-Pb-Sr isotope systematics of crustal assimilation in the Voiseys Bay and Mushuau intrusions, Labrador, Canada: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 815-830
Brenan J M, Li C  2000 - Constraints on Oxygen fugacity during Sulfide segregation in the Voiseys Bay intrusion, Labrador, Canada: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 901-915
Bulle, F. and Layne, G.D.,  2016 - Multi-element variations in olivine as geochemical signatures of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in mafic magma systems - examples from Voiseys Bay and Pants Lake intrusions, Labrador, Canada: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.51, pp. 49-69,
Evans-Lamswood D M, Butt D P, Jackson R S, Lee D V, Muggridge M G, Wheeler R I  2000 - Physical controls associated with the distribution of Sulfides in the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Labrador: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 749-769
Hiebert, R.S., Bekker, A., Wing, B.A. and Rouxel, O.J.,  2013 - The Role of Paragneiss Assimilation in the Origin of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu Sulfide Deposit, Labrador: Multiple S and Fe Isotope Evidence : in    Econ. Geol.   v.108, pp. 1459-1469.
Kerr A, Ryan B  2000 - Threading the eye of the needle: lessons from the search for another Voiseys Bay in Labrador, Canada: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 725-748
Lambert D D, Frick L R, Foster J G, Li C, Naldrett A J  2000 - Re-Os isotope systematics of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co magmatic Sulfide system, Labrador, Canada: II. Implications for parental magma chemistry, ore genesis, and metal redistribution: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 867-888
Li C, Lightfoot P C, Amelin Y, Naldrett A J  2000 - Contrasting petrological and geochemical relationships in the Voiseys Bay and Mushuau intrusions, Labrador, Canada: implications for ore genesis: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 771-799
Li C, Naldrett A J  1999 - Geology and Petrology of the Voiseys Bay Intrusion: Reaction of Olivine with Sulfide and Silicate Liquids: in    Lithos   v47 pp 1-31
Li C, Naldrett A J  2000 - Melting reactions of gneissic inclusions with enclosing magma at Voiseys Bay, Labrador, Canada: implications with respect to ore genesis: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 801-814
Li, Chusi, Naldrett, A.J. and Ripley, E.M.,  2001 - Critical factors for the formation of a nickel-copper deposit in an evolved magma system: lessons from a comparison of the Pants Lake and Voiseys Bay sulfide occurrences in Labrador, Canada: in    Mineralium Deposita   v36 pp 85-92
Lightfoot P C,  2007 - Advances in Ni-Cu-PGE Sulphide Deposit Models and Implications for Exploration Technologies: in Milkereit B, 2007 Proceedings of Exploration 07: Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration Decennial Mineral Exploration Conferences, Toronto, Canada,    pp. 629-646
Lightfoot P C, Naldrett A J  1999 - Geological and Geochemical relationships in the Voiseys Bay Intrusion, Nain Plutonic Suite, Labrador, Canada: in Keays R R, Lesher C M, Lightfoot P C, Farrow C E G, (Eds),  Dynamic Processes in Magmatic Ore Deposits and their Application in Mineral Exploration Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes   v13 pp 1-30
Mansur, E.T., Barnes, S.-J. and Duran, C.J.,  2021 - An overview of chalcophile element contents of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite from magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.56, pp. 179-204.
Naldrett A J  1999 - World Class Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: Key Factors in their Genesis: in    Mineralium Deposita   v34 pp 227-240
Naldrett A J, Asif M, Krstic S  2000 - The composition of mineralization at the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu Sulfide deposit, with special reference to Platinum-group elements: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 845-865
Naldrett A J, Keats H,Sparkes K, Moore R  1996 - Geology of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co Deposit, Labrador, Canada: in    Exploration & Mining Geology, CIM   v5, no. 2 pp 169-179
Naldrett A J, Singh J, Krstic S, Li C  2000 - The mineralogy of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, northern Labrador, Canada: influence of oxidation state on textures and mineral compositions: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 889-900
Ripley E M, Li C, Shin D  2002 - Paragneiss assimulation in the genesis of magmatic Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide mineralization at Voiseys Bay, Labrador: d34S, d13C and Se/S evidence: in    Econ. Geol.   v97 pp 1307-1318
Ripley E M, Park Y-R, Li C, Naldrett A J  2000 - Oxygen isotope studies of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Labrador, Canada: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 831-844
Ryan B  2000 - The Nain-Churchill Boundary and the Nain Plutonic Suite: a regional perspective on the geologic setting of the Voiseys Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 703-724
Scoates J S, Mitchell J N  2000 - The evolution of Troctolitic and high Al basaltic magmas in Proterozoic Anorthosite plutonic suites and implications for the Voiseys Bay massive Ni-Cu Sulfide deposit: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 677-701
Song, X., Wang, Y. and Chen, L.,  2011 - Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits in magma plumbing systems: Features, formation and exploration: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.2, pp. 375-384.

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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