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Morelos - El Limon, Guajes, Media Luna
Guerrero, Mexico
Main commodities: Au Ag Cu


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The El Limón Guajes and Media Luna gold deposits, which together are exploited as the Morelos Operation, are located in Guerrero State, Mexico, ~180 km south-southwest of Mexico City. Media Luna is ~4.5 km south of El Limón Guajes (#Location: 18° 0' 13"N. 99° 44' 53"W).

The Morelos Operation mines are 15 km NNW of the Los Filos gold deposits, which like the Morelos mines, are part of the wider Guerrero Gold Belt.

Geology

  The Morelos deposits lie within the broad Guerrero platform that is characterised by a thick sequence of Mesozoic carbonate and clastic rocks, comprising, successively, from the base, the Morelos, Cuautla and Mezcala Formations, which were deposited in the Morelos-Guerrero Basin. These sequences have been intruded by a number of early Cenozoic granitoid bodies. This sedimentary succession unconformably overlies the pre-Carboniferous metamorphic basement of the Acatlán Complex. The Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Morelos-Guerrero Basin and the granitoid intrusions are unconformably overlain and partially masked by a sequence of intermediate to felsic volcanic, mainly andesite to rhyolite, and alluvial sedimentary rocks, mainly red sandstones and conglomerates. These belong to the Eocene to Middle Miocene Balsas Group.

  Structurally, the deposits lie within the north-south elongated ~200 x 125 km Mixteca Terrane, which is overlain to the north by Neogene-Quaternary rocks of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. To the west, it is separated from the Guerrero Composite Terrane (Campa and Coney, 1983) by the Teloloapan Thrust, whereas the strike-slip fault contact with the Xolapa metamorphic terrane marks its southern boundary. To the east, the Mixteca Terrane is separated from the Acatlán Complex by the NE-SW–trending Papalutla Thrust (Centeno-Garcia et al., 2008).

  The Mesozoic sequence has been folded into broad north-south-trending paired anticlines and synclines during the east-vergent compression and accretion of the Guerrero Composite Terrane to the west, against the Mixteca Terrane in the east. This occurred synchronously with the Sevier-Laramide orogenies in western North America between 80 and 45 Ma (Dickinson et al., 1988; Bird, 1998). The El Limón Guajes and Media Luna deposits are on the western margin of the Mixteca Terrane, at the transition between belts of overthrust Guerrero Composite Terrane rocks to the west, and the structurally underlying, more broadly-folded Mixteca Terrane to the east.

  Regional structures identified in this part of the Mixteca Terrane also include sets of NE- and NW-striking faults and fractures that cut both the carbonate succession and the granitoid intrusions. The intrusive bodies are distributed as NW-trending belts that are thought to reflect the structural control of the NW-trending fault set (de la Garza et. al., 1996).

  Mineralisation on a regional scale includes skarn-hosted and epithermal precious metal deposits and volcanic hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) mineralisation. Deposits of these styles in Guerrero, are found in two adjacent arcuate belts, with a gold belt, the Guerrero Gold Belt of the Sierra Madre del Sur, lying to the east of, and on the concave margin of, the VHMS belt. Both belts are ~30 km wide and over 100 km long, and trend NW to SE. The El Limón Guajes (ELG) and Media Luna deposits lie within the Guerrero Gold Belt and are hosted by a structurally-complex sequence of marble and limestone belonging to the Morelos Formation, limestones and sandstones of the Cuautla Formation and shale and sandstone of the Mezcala Formation, intruded by the El Limón granodiorite stock and later felsic dykes and sills.

  The Albian to Upper Cenomanian Morelos Formation is a suite of fossiliferous, medium to thickly bedded, finely crystalline limestones and dolostones. The clastic content is generally very low, and the degree of dolomitisation variable. The limestones of the Morelos Formation are bioclastic, peloidal and intraclastic packstones as well as wackestones, which are rich in inner shelf organisms (Aguilera-Franco and Hernández Romano, 2004). The basal contact is not exposed locally, but from available regional drilling, the formation has a thickness of at least 1570 m in the deposit area. It is widely distributed in the central and eastern parts of the district, and has been altered to marble outboard of the skarn zones, as well as hosting small jasperoid occurrences.

  The Late Cenomanian-Coniacian Cuautla Formation transitionally overlies the Morelos Formation. It comprises a succession of thin to medium bedded silty limestones and sandstones with argillaceous partings and minor shale intercalations. The thickness of the Cuautla Formation varies from several tens to hundreds of metres, but averages ~20 m. The base of the formation is composed of similar limestones to the top of the Morelos Formation, but contains different fossils (Aguilera-Franco et al., 2001). The upper Cuautla Formation comprises thin suites of laminated bioclastic and intraclastic limestones that gradually transition upward into pelagic limestones and siliciclastic rocks of the overlying latest Cenomanian to probably Maastrichtian Mezcala Formation. At El Limón, the skarn body is developed at the stratigraphic position of the Cuautla Formation, although a complete absence of silty limestone exposures suggests that the Cuautla Formation is absent in most of the drilled area. Some small exposures of thin-bedded silty limestones that may represent the Cuautla Formation are present at the El Limón Norte Oxide Zone and also near the Guajes area.

  The Mezcala Formation transitionally overlies the Cuautla Formation, and comprises a platform to flysch-like succession, dominated at the base by grey argillaceous limestones that gradually transition to shales, siltstones and sandstones, and to conglomerates at the very top (Fries, 1960; Aguilera-Franco and Hernández Romano, 2004). This sequence has been extensively altered to hornfels near intrusive contacts at El Limón Guajesto in the west. In contrast to the Morelos and Cuautla Formations, the Mezcala Formation sedimentary rocks are commonly strongly deformed into tight folds. Differential folding between units implies that formational contacts have served as dislocation surfaces. Dykes and sills crosscut hornfels-altered Mezcala Formation adjacent to contacts with Paleocene intrusive rocks. The Mezcala Formation has been removed by erosion in most of the eastern part of the mineral tenure area.

  The change in depositional environment from shallow marine carbonate platform of the Morelos Formation, to flysch sedimentation in the Mezcala Formation marks a transition from extension to shortening over this period, and was associated with the development of a foreland basin over the Cretaceous carbonate platform (Fries, 1960; Aguilera-Franco and Hernández Romano, 2004). The shortening was the result of the final accretion of the Guerrero Composite Terrane onto the continental margin and its emplacement over the Mixteca Terrane in the Late Cretaceous (Campa and Coney, 1983).

  The complex that intrudes the folded Morelos-Guerrero Basin sedimentary rocks is of Late Cretaceous to Paleocene age between 67 and 63 Ma (Jones and Jackson, 1999; Meza-Figueroa et al., 2003; Levresse et al., 2004; Belanger, 2012) and is dominantly composed of granodiorite, although some quartz-monzonites, tonalites and diorites have been mapped, in addition to minor, late andesitic dykes. The distribution of these intrusions and the associated andesite to rhyolite volcanic rocks of the Balsas Group that overlie the Morelos-Guerrero Basin, as detailed above, coincide with the Guerrero Gold Belt. Geochemically the intrusives are moderate- to high-K calc-alkaline series plutons that contain 56 to 71 wt.% SiO2 (de la Garza et al., 1996; González-Partida et al., 2003; Meza-Figueroa et al., 2003). Skarn-hosted gold mineralisation is developed along the contacts of these intrusives and the enclosing carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks.

  In the El Limón Guajes and Media Luna deposit areas, these intrusions are represented by the composite El Limón magmatic system, which includes the 15 km
2, mostly equigranular, El Limón granodiorite stock. This intrusion has the shape of two domes along a NW trend, connected by a small saddle, giving it a curved, elongate, peanut-like shape. As well as the main stock, it also includes several sills of equigranular granodiorite to porphyritic feldspar tonalite that intrude both the Morelos and Mezcala Formations over a wide area surrounding the outcropping portion of the main stock. The outermost periphery of the El Limón granodiorite stock is locally composed of porphyritic feldspar tonalite with an identical texture and composition to some of the sills. On the northern extremity of the intrusion, in the vicinity of the Limón and Guajes deposits, the geometry of the El Limón stock is characterised by multiple sill-like fingers. The Limón deposit is situated above such a >100 m thick sill like intrusion, whilst the Guajes deposits are located along the NW margin of the Limón granodiorite, where several up to 30 m thick sills emanate from the granodiorite stock into the sedimentary host rocks.

  The equigranular, phaneritic, Limón granodiorite is mainly composed of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, K feldspar and quartz, with accessory apatite, titanite and zircon. It contains 2 to 3 vol.% hornblende phenocrysts with a preferred orientation that imparts a weak magmatic foliation. Tonalite porphyry sills with feldspar phenocrysts have the same overall mineral assemblage as the granodiorite, but contain more biotite and lesser quartz. Both the granodiorite and feldspar tonalite porphyry intrusions contain rounded to irregular mafic enclaves, ranging from several centimetres to metres in diameter. These enclaves are fine grained with abundant biotite, hornblende and plagioclase phenocrysts, and have a monzodiorite to gabbro-diorite composition. Xenoliths of the gneissic Acatlán metamorphic basement are present, but rare, in the El Limón granodiorite. Dykes and sills of feldspar-biotite-hornblende-quartz granodiorite porphyry cut both the Limón granodiorite and the feldspar tonalite porphyry sills, but have a mineralogy almost identical to the Limón granodiorite, although with a distinct crowded porphyritic texture. Less abundant, but widely distributed, feldspar-biotite-hornblende monzodiorite to tonalite porphyritic dykes also intrude the main stock and host sedimentary rocks. Quartz-feldspar-hornblende granite porphyry dykes cut all the above listed intrusions, although, crosscutting relationships with the feldspar-biotite-hornblende monzodiorite-tonalite and quartz-feldspar-hornblende granite porphyry dykes has not be observed in the field.

Alteration

  The El Limón Guajes (ELG) complex deposits include the El Limón Pit, El Limón Sur Skarn, Sub-Sill, El Limón Deep, Guajes East and Guajes West. The gold mineralisation of these deposits is found in association with a skarn altered body developed along a 2 km long corridor that wraps around the northeastern contact of the 6 x 2.5 km, El Limón granodiorite stock. This stock is curved, like a peanut, elongated NNE-SSW in its northern half, and NW-SE in the south. The El Limón Guajes mineralised corridor straddles the 'northern' extremity of the stock to form a concave to the south crescent shape that trends NE-SW hosting the Guajes deposits in the 'west', before curving to be WNW-ESE with the El Limón and then NNE-SSW again with the El Limón Sur skarn to the 'east'. The El Limón Sur zone is ~1 km SSW of the main El Limón skarn deposit and outcrops on a steep ridge extending down the mountain towards the Balsas River. The El Limón Sur mineralisation occurs within a similar stratigraphic position as the southeastern portion of the El Limón deposit. The Sub-Sill zone is located between the El Limón and El Limón Sur ore deposits, and lies below the El Limón sill. At Sub-Sill, several skarns have been identified along the contacts between the carbonate rich sediments and marbles of the Cuautla and Morelos formations and sills of granodiorite interpreted as fingering out from the main El Limón granodiorite stock. High grade gold mineralization has been intercepted in all the different skarn horizons, mainly associated with exoskarns that have undergone retrograde alteration. Structurally, the Sub-Sill as well as El Limón and El Limón Sur zones are hosted in a graben bounded by the La Flaca Fault to the west and the Antena Fault to the east. Both are potential feeders for the mineralisation.

  Guajes East is developed in the same host lithologies, following westward around the bend in the contact with the same intrusion from El Limón. The skarn alteration developed at Guajes East is 300 m wide, up to 90 m thick, and is continuous along at least 600 m of the northwest edge of the intrusion. Guajes West is located further along the northwest contact of the El Limón granodioritic stock, where the hornfels-intrusive contact has some local patchy and structure-controlled skarn occurrences formed at the contact between hornfels and marble. However, in addition to the granodioritic stock contact, these are related to numerous associated porphyritic dykes and sills.

  The Media Luna deposits are at the southern margin of the El Lim&0acute;n granodiorite stock, ~7 km south SW of the El Limón Guajes Mine Complex. A gold-copper-silver mineralised skarn alteration zone has been identified with approximate dimensions of 1.4 x 1.2 km, ranging from 4 m to >70 m in thickness. The mineralisation occurs in most parts around 500 m below surface, but does outcrop on the northern side of the Media Luna ridge.

  The Limón-Guajes deposit formed within the fairly pure limestone interpreted to belong to the Cuautla Formation (Burisch et al. 2023) or at the marble stratigraphic position within the Morelos Formation (Davidson, et al., 2022) that typically has <1 wt.% Mg, and occurs near the stratigraphic contact with the Mezcala Formation. In contrast, the Media Luna skarn was formed deeper in the stratigraphic section, within the Morelos Formation, where the carbonates tend to be more dolomitic, containing up to 11.4 wt.% Mg, i.e., Media Luna is a magnesian skarn, whereas the El Limón Guajes deposits are related to a calcic skarn. At both locations, skarn alteration replaces igneous rocks as endoskarn, and carbonate protoliths as exoskarn. Within the mineralised crescent shaped corridor at Limón-Guajes, as described above, the composite endoskarn and exoskarn is irregularly 100 to 600 m wide and 2 to 2.5 km long, following the igneous-sedimentary contact, and extending 15 to 80 m into the sedimentary rocks. At the Media Luna deposits, the skarn alteration forms a 400 to 1500 m wide x 1500 m long lens with a thickness of 4 to >70 m, following the SW-dipping igneous-sedimentary contact. The gold-copper-silver mineralisation of the skarn is mostly ~500 m below surface but locally outcrops on the northern side of the Media Luna ridge.

  The El Limón skarn mineralisation is also structurally controlled by NE-SW and WNW-ESE trending faults and fractures zones as indicated in the trends of the crescent shaped corridor described above. The alteration and mineralisation are regarded as being fairly typical of calcic gold-skarn systems. Zones of coarse, massive, garnet-dominant skarn alteration occur proximal to and within the stock margin as endoskarn, whilst fine-grained pyroxene-dominant skarn alteration is more common external and distal to the stock as exoskarn. Significant gold mineralisation is associated with the skarn alteration, preferentially developed in pyroxene-rich exoskarn but also hosted in garnet-rich endoskarn that has undergone retrograde alteration.

  The endoskarn-exoskarn contact is often difficult to differentiate, whilst the alteration has rendered the different endoskarn altered igneous protoliths difficult or impossible to distinguish. Prograde skarn at both Limón-Guajes and Media Luna is mainly characterised by garnet and pyroxene, with a systematic decrease in the garnet:pyroxene ratio, from proximal to distal relative to the intrusion, across the igneous-sedimentary contact. There is also a zonation from proximal red-brown garnet to intermediate brown (-green) garnet, to distal green garnet in both deposits. There is also very distal garnet in skarnoid layers and nodules within marble, external to the main skarn alteration mass. Analyses indicate the garnets range from grossular to andradite in composition. Pyroxene varies from early, proximal diopside to later, distal hedenbergite-rich varieties.

  The retrograde skarn alteration assemblage includes scapolite, amphibole and chlorite, with locally abundant early magnetite and later sulphides, tellurides, and native metals. The magnetite post-dates prograde pyroxene, garnet and phlogopite, but is earlier than retrograde amphibole. Late-stage opaque minerals postdate or are coeval with retrograde amphibole and extensively replace prograde skarn minerals. These include hedleyite (Bi
7Te3), tetradymite (Bi2Te2S), cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), bismuthinite (Bi2S3) pyrrhotite, cobaltite (CoAsS), chalcopyrite, molybdenite, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, native gold, native bismuth and electrum. Retrograde alteration of earlier skarn minerals involved the formation of serpentine, talc and chlorite accompanied by pyrite, whilst calcite is found in all retrograde assemblages. Late-stage veins and breccias of kaolinite-pyrite-calcite ±hematite crosscut intrusions, skarn and marble. Beyond the limit of calc-silicate alteration, fluid escape structures are evident, marking the passage of spent hydrothermal fluids below the T-P-X limits of calc-silicate mineral formation. Lead-zinc-silver mantos and vein mineralisation is evident up to 1.5 km distal to the Limón granodiorite contact, containing galena, Fe-poor sphalerite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, stibnite, fluorite and calcite.

  According to Burisch et al. (2023) whilst both the Limón-Guajes and Media Luna deposit clusters have similar overall mineralogical characteristics, there are also distinct differences. The Media Luna cluster is characterised by a significantly higher abundance of magnetite and chalcopyrite, whilst pyrrhotite is more abundant in the Guajes-Limón skarn alteration, although both yield strong magnetic highs due to the abundance of monoclinic pyrrhotite and magnetite, respectively. The Media Luna deposit, being a magnesian skarn as discussed above, is characterized by a more magnesian mineralogy including forsterite, chondrodite, humite, clinohumite, ludwigite, periclase, tremolite, phlogopite and serpentine.

Mineralisation

  The earliest hydrothermal mineralisation comprises widely-spaced, irregularly oriented molybdenite-quartz veins that predate skarn alteration and are mainly restricted to the Limón granodiorite and porphyritic feldspar tonalite sills and dykes. They may extend for several metres into the hornfels, but usually pinch out within the intrusive rocks where the intrusion is in contact with marble. These veins have similarities with B-veins in a porphyry copper system, having laminated K feldspar margins accompanied by patches of molybdenite and minor chalcopyrite. They are commonly overprinted by a prograde pyroxene and/or garnet alteration assemblage.

  At El Limón and Guajes, gold and silver mineralisation extends over a strike length of 1700 m with widths of up to 90 m, and has been intersected to a depth of 470 m at El Limón, and at Guajes to 300 m below surface. The deepest mineralisation known to date was encountered at a depth of 1100 m beneath the southern portion of the El Limón skarn. Gold and silver mostly occur with early sulphide mineralisation, but are also found with late carbonate, quartz, and adularia. Native gold is most commonly found in close association with bismuth and bismuth tellurides but also with chalcopyrite and as inclusions in arsenopyrite. The gold associated with bismuth tellurides is extremely fine-grained, ranging from a few to several tens of µm. The predominant sulphides are pyrrhotite and pyrite, with lesser, but locally abundant, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite which occur in veinlets and open-space fillings. Pyrrhotite has commonly been partially replaced by a mixture of pyrite and marcasite, although the earliest pyrite is replaced by pyrrhotite. Chalcopyrite is associated with pyrrhotite and is usually present as very fine grains. Very minor amounts of tennantite have been observed in a few thin sections. Fluorite is rarely seen. Minor sphalerite and molybdenite are also present. Sphalerite accompanies, or occurs as inclusions within, chalcopyrite. Molybdenite, although spatially closely associated with other sulphides, is usually free in gangue and occurs as small laths and bent lamellae in the 20 to 50 µm range. Coarse-grained stibnite in surface cavities has been found along some holes drilled in the eastern portion of the El Limón skarn.

  At Media Luna, there is a strong geochemical Au-Bi-Te-As ±Co association across the entire skarn alteration zone, and gold is geochemically strongly correlated with bismuth and tellurium. It commonly occurs as native Au as well as gold-rich electrum, whilst chalcopyrite is the principal Cu mineral. The Zn-Fe S system is represented by sphalerite, sulphosalts, galena and Ag-Fe-S rich minerals, such as argentopyrite. The principal sulphide minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, are accompanied by native metals and bismuth minerals. These are intergrown with retrograde amphibole and hence are thought to have been precipitated shortly after, or at the same time, as amphibole. Some areas of early pyrrhotite are overprinted by patches of ragged and porous-looking pyrite, whilst others exhibit lamellae of marcasite forming in pyrrhotite. Late pyrite appears to be associated with darker coloured chlorite, typically yellow-brown to brownish-green. Chlorite commonly occurs along garnet or pyroxene grain boundaries, or as cross-cutting veinlets with calcite. Late pyrrhotite and pyrite appear to have formed under reduced conditions. In general, gold and copper are zoned, with elevated gold grades as Au-As or Au-Bi, generally found in the hanging wall of the skarn package, whilst copper dominates along the footwall, overlapping near major dykes. This zonation is more evident on the central-south part of the deposit. Zn rich domains are restricted to the northern margin of Media Luna, and in association with dykes.

Reserves and Resources

Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves at March 2022 (after Davidson et al., 2022 NI 43-101 Technical Report) were:
El Limón Guajes Open Pit at a diluted cut-off grade of 1.1 g/t Au
    Measured + Indicated Resource - 16.754 Mt @ 2.89 g/t Au, 4.8 g/t Ag, 0.12% Cu;
    Inferred Resource - 0.812 Mt @ 1.80 g/t Au, 3.5 g/t Ag, 0.08% Cu;
    Proved + Probable Reserve - 10.371 Mt @ 3.11 g/t Au, 4.5 g/t Ag, 0.13% Cu.
El Limón Guajes Underground
    Measured + Indicated Resource - 4.551 Mt @ 6.25 g/t Au, 7.4 g/t Ag, 0.30% Cu;
    Inferred Resource - 1.38 Mt @ 4.88 g/t Au, 6.2 g/t Ag, 0.25% Cu;
    Proved + Probable Reserve - 2.675 Mt @ 5.74 g/t Au, 5.9 g/t Ag, 0.24% Cu.
Media Luna Underground at 2.2 g/t Au cut-off
    Measured + Indicated Resource - 25.380 Mt @ 3.24 g/t Au, 31.5 g/t Ag, 1.08% Cu;
    Inferred Resource - 5.991 Mt @ 2.47 g/t Au, 20.8 g/t Ag, 0.81% Cu;
    Probable Reserve - 23.07 Mt @ 2.81 g/t Au, 25.6 g/t Ag, 0.88% Cu.
EPO Underground - another resource nearby suitable as additional mill feed
    Inferred Resource - 8.019 Mt @ 1.52 g/t Au, 34.6 g/t Ag, 1.27% Cu;
Combined TOTALS
  Measured + Indicated Resource - 46.685 Mt @ 3.41 g/t Au, 19.6 g/t Ag, 0.66% Cu - for 159 tonnes of contained gold, 915 t of Ag;
  Inferred Resource - 16.202 Mt @ 2.17 g/t Au, 25.5 g/t Ag, 0.95% Cu - for 35.2 tonnes of contained gold, 413 t of Ag;
  Surface stockpiles - 4.808 Mt @ 1.35 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag, 0.55% Cu - for 6.5 tonnes of contained gold, 15 t of Ag;
  Proved + Probable Reserves (incl. Stockpiles) - 40.871 Mt @ 2.90 g/t Au, 16.3 g/t Ag, 0.55% Cu - for 118.5 tonnes of contained gold, 875 t of Ag.
NOTE: Mineral Resources are inclusive of Ore Reserves

The information in this summary is drawn from Burisch et al. (2023) cited below, and from
Davidson, R., Bekkers, G., Makin, J., Saich, S., Burkhalter, C., Kingston, L., Garcia, D., Dobr, M., Pegnam, M., Hammett, R., Pratt, R., Correa, L., Halley, D. and Levy, M., 2022 - ELG Mine Complex Life of Mine Plan and Media Luna Feasibility Study, Guerrero State, Mexico; an NI 43-101 Technical Report prepared by M3 Engineering & Technology Corporation for Torex Gold Resources Inc., 658p.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2023.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.


El Limon Guajes

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Burisch, M., Bussey, S.D., Landon, N., Nasi, C., Kakarieka, A., Gerdes, A., Albert, R., Stein, H.J., Gabites, J.A., Friedman, R.M. and Meinert, L.D.,  2023 - Timing of Magmatism and Skarn Formation at the Limon, Guajes, and Media Luna Gold ± Copper Skarn Deposits at Morelos, Guerrero State, Mexico: in    Econ. Geol.   v.118, pp. 695-718.


Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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