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Tisha, Tishinsk, Tishinskoye, Tishinsky, Gabriela
Main commodities: Zn Cu Pb Ag

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The Tisha, (also known as Tishinsk, Tishinsky and Tishinskoye) deposit is a polymetallic VHMS deposit within the Rudny Altay Volcanic Arc, in the Leninogorsk/Ridder district of eastern Kazakhstan. It is located ~65 km NE of Oskemen, 15 km SW Ridder, and adjacent to the town of Ulba (#Location: 50° 15' 54"N, 83° 21' 54"E).

The deposit was discovered in 1958 and has been in production since 1965 (Smirnov, 1977). Tisha, and the nearby Gabriela deposit are close together and lie within a zone of pyritisation on the south-western margin of the NW-SE elongated Sinyushinsk volcanic uplift. The great Ridder Sokol'noe deposits are found to the north-east, within the same uplift (Starostin, et al., 1989).

Mineralisation appears to be structurally controlled, lying within the central portion of the Kedrovo-Butachikha fault zone. It lies along the faulted contact between the Il'ina and Sokol'naya groups, both of middle Devonian (Eifelian) age. The upper sections of the stratigraphically older Il'ina Group is composed of basaltic-andesite tuffs and lavas, with thin seams of siltstone and fine grained sandstone. The basal parts of the overlying Sokol'naya Group includes carbonatic and carbonatic-clay siltstones, carbonatic and carbonaceous-carbonatic shales, sandstone, tuffaceous sandstone, tuffites and occasionally rhyodacite and dacite tuffs and lavas. The host rocks at Tisha are cut by rhyolitic porphyries within the fault zone, which have been variously interpreted as sub-volcanic bodies associated with Devonian volcanic activity, or late Palaeozoic intrusives, or middle Devonian lavas (Smirnov, 1977).

The rocks of the Il'ina and Sokol'naya groups in the contact zone have been subjected to intense dyno-metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration over a width of around 400 m. Along strike to both the east and west the thickness diminishes markedly. This belt of hydrothermally altered rock has a zoned distribution, from the centre outwards, of: i) quartz-sericite and sericite-quartz in the centre; to ii) quartz-carbonate-chlorite-sericite in the intermediate zone; to iii) quartz-carbonate-chlorite of the outer zone (Smirnov, 1977).

Within the overall zone of shearing (dyno-metamorphism) and alteration there are three zones of more intense shear deformation, trending east-west, parallel to the overall strike and structural grain of the succession. The widths of these zones varies from 40 to 150 m. A complex synformal fold, and a series of flexural bends have also been identified within the orebody area. The ore is contained at the contact between the Il'ina and Sokol'naya groups, within the broad zone of shearing, forming three bodies or groups of lenses, the Main and the first and second Parallel ore segregations. The ore lenses appear to be separated by the zones of more intense shearing. A major proportion of the ore is contained within the Main orebody. This orebody is elongated in a general east-west direction, with a steep northerly dip. On its flanks it divides into a number of parallel tapering branches to the east and west, and gradually fades out (Smirnov, 1977).

The orebodies are steeply dipping, lensoid, branching and tabular, and are hosted by micro-quartzite and quartz-sericite schist. The ore occurs as i) massive banded and lensoid massive ore and as ii) thin veinlets and lenses up to 2 to 5 cm thick, oriented parallel to the shearing in the altered rocks. The massive ore accounts for about 25% of the total. The main sulphide minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena, with quartz, sericite, chlorite and dolomite. Within the massive ore the Pb:Zn:Cu ratio is 1:5.3:0.3, and in the veinlet ore it is 1:7.8:1.2. In addition to Pb, Zn and Cu the deposit also contains Cd, Ag and Au (Smirnov, 1977).

Starostin, et al., (1989) conclude that the Tisha and nearby Gabriela orebodies were originally stratabound, volcanic hosted deposits which have been subjected to intensive dynamic metamorphism, producing plastic flow folds and boudinage structures, axial plane cleavage and lit-par-lit crystallisation schistosity, Alpine type veinlets, etc., that have redistributed the sulphides and modified the morphology of the orebody.

Annual production in 1990 was of the order of 1.04 Mt @ 0.47% Cu, 6.2% Zn, 1.2% Pb

Remaining resources and reserves in 2012 (Halyk Finance report, Dec. 2012, sourced from Kazzinc reports) were:
    Mineral resources - 33.43 Mt @ 0.6% Cu, 4.6% Zn, 1.0% Pb 9.9 g/t Ag, 0.5 g/t Au;
    Ore reserves - 23.81 Mt @ 0.5% Cu, 4.2% Zn, 0.9% Pb 8.4 g/t Ag, 0.5 g/t Au.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 1989.     Record last updated: 15/5/2013
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
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