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Horne, Horne 5
Quebec, Canada
Main commodities: Cu Au


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The historic Horne volcanogenic hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposit is located in Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada.   It is the largest of >22 deposits of this type to be discovered in the Rouyn-Noranda district. The total metal production for the period over which it operated, from 1927, is calculated to have been 1 028 593 tonnes of copper, >539 tonnes of silver and 278 tonnes of gold from 48.722162 Mt of ore until mine closure in 1976.

The largely un-mined Horne 5 gold project is planned to operate from the historic Quemont Shaft, and mine resources down dip/plunge of the historic Horne Mine massive sulphide mineralisation. It is not clear when geologists became aware of the existence of the Horne 5 deposit, although it is first mentioned in 1933. In 1935, shaft No. 5 was completed to the 655 m level, and underground exploration program was started in 1936 to define the Horne 5 deposit between the 905 and 1220 m levels, corresponding to the upper portion of the mineralisation. This program included sinking internal shaft No. 6 to level 1210 m in 1939. By 1956, a resource of 58 Mt @ 1.27 g/t Au, 0.11% Cu, 0.58% Zn had been estimated for Horne 5. From 1959, underground exploration was concentrated on locating new orebodies below a depth of 1825 m. Apart from small gold shoots, it seemed at the time that the Horne 5 deposit had only marginal value between depths of 915 and 1825 m. In 1960 internal shaft 8 was sunk to 2440 m. By 1967, no new high-grade gold-bearing mineralisation had been identified between 2130 and 2440 m, and it was decided to lay aside this part of the Horne 5 deposit, although mining of the gold-rich blocks of the Horne 5 deposit continued from 1967 until closure in 1976, with the extraction of 0.2013 Mt @ 7 g/t Au, 0.727% Cu. In 1980 the Horne 5 deposit was estimated to contain a remaining resource of 1.5276 Mt @ 6.2 g/t Au, 0.47% Cu, 16.5 g/t Ag. Subsequent drilling and an evaluation of all available data has outlined a substantially larger Mineral Resources of near 130 Mt of ore, as detailed at the end of this record (#Location: Horne 5 - 48° 15' 31"N, 79° 0' 21"W).

The Horne mine was operated between 1927 and 1976 by Noranda Mines Limited. In 2005, Noranda merged with Falconbridge Limited, which was subsequently acquired by Xstrata plc. in 2007. In 2012, Xstrata merged with Glencore. In 2011, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement, QMX Gold Corp. (formerly Alexis Minerals Corporation) gained the rights to former properties of Noranda Mines at Noranda, including Horne 5. In 2012 as the result of a series of deals, the property came under the ownership of Falco Resources Limited.

Geology

The Horne deposit lies within the Rouyn-Noranda District in the south-central section of the ~900 x 250 km, ENE-WSW oriented Abitibi Greenstone Belt as summarised in the main Noranda record. The Horne deposit is hosted by felsic volcanic rocks of the 2704 to 2695 Ma Blake River Assemblage, the uppermost of the seven discrete volcanic stratigraphic episodes that constitute the Abitibi Greenstone Belt (or Abitibi Sub-province). In the Rouyn-Noranda District, the volcanic sequence is interpreted to represents one of the largest volcanic centres within the Blake River Group, and is known as the Noranda Cauldron (or Caldera) with a ~35 km diameter and a 7.5 to 9.0 km thick section of bimodal volcanic strata.

The Horne deposit is hosted by felsic volcanics of the Noranda Cauldron, where they occur as a narrow, 300 to 600 m wide wedge between the Andesite and Horne Creek Faults in the southern part of the Rouyn-Noranda district. The Blake River Group has been subdivided into a number of structural blocks within the district, each delimited by major faults and their extrapolations (Spence, 1976; Peloquin et al., 1990). Lithological correlation between the different structural blocks is difficult in most cases.

The Sequence in the Horne Block is composed of volcanic rocks that face to the north, strikes ~WNW, and dip steeply to the north (Wilson, 1941; Hodge, 1967; Sinclair, 1971; Kerr and Mason, 1990; Kerr and Gibson, 1993; Gibson et al., 2000; Monecke et al., 2008). The bounding Horne Creek and Andesite faults converge approximately 2.2 km to the west of the Horne deposit and dip steeply toward one another. The predominantly felsic volcanic host succession at Horne is composed of coherent rhyolite flows and related volcaniclastic deposits. These are interpreted to represent subaqueous lava flows with lesser syn-volcanic intrusions, redeposited syn-eruptive volcaniclastic deposits, and possible primary pyroclastic deposits (Kerr and Mason, 1990; Kerr and Gibson, 1993; Gibson et al., 2000; Monecke et al., 2008). The volcanic host rocks of the Horne deposit have been informally divided into three conformable formations that, from stratigraphic footwall to hanging wall, include the West 3919, Main Mine, and REMNOR formations (Kerr and Gibson, 1993).

The absence of detailed surface mapping, mean that the sense and magnitude of displacement along the bounding faults is unclear, although underground exposure in the Horne and Quemont mines suggest that the Horne Creek and Andesite faults are composite structures with evidence of repeated movement (Wilson, 1941). In the mine area, a zone of intense shearing along the Horne Creek Fault varies from ~50 m to 150 m in width. The Andesite Fault, which has a zone of intense shearing that ranges from <1 to 10 m in width, is interpreted to be a subsidiary of the Horne Creek Fault (Hodge, 1967; Wilson, 1941). However, considerable structural complexity within the mine area is caused by a NE-trending set of curvi-planar splays off the Andesite Fault that slice the volcanic succession and the mineralisation into a number of smaller blocks (Gibson et al., 2000).

The Quemont massive-sulphide deposit lies immediately to the north of the Horne Creek Fault, opposite Horne, and is hosted by rhyolite breccia and coherent porphyritic rhyolite (Ryznar et al., 1967; Weeks, 1967). Volcanic rocks showing similar textural characteristics have not been recognised within the Horne Block (Kerr and Mason, 1990). Rocks south of the Andesite Fault (on the opposite side to Horne) are mainly andesitic to basaltic, and strike ~east-west, with a sub-vertical dip. They include felsic volcaniclastic rocks that contain sulphide clasts, and with textures similar to volcanic deposits within the Horne Block. On the eastern, along strike limit of the Horne succession, geological relationships are poorly constrained, with historical mine-level plans indicating host felsic volcanic rocks in contact with a wedge-shaped package of mafic rocks located to the NE. These mafic rocks apparently thicken toward the east, separating the orebodies from the Horne Creek Fault. The contact between the host felsic volcanic rocks and the mafic rock package parallels bedding and strikes ~WNW, suggesting a conformable contact relationship. This is interpreted to imply the mafic rocks were emplaced as either flows or sills. However, the wedge-shaped package of mafic rocks has previously been interpreted to be entirely intrusive (Price, 1934). Other observations suggest the contact relationship between the package of felsic volcanic rocks hosting the Horne deposit and the andesites are in angular discordance.

The volcanic host rocks of the Horne deposit between the two faults comprises the following three conformable formations, from stratigraphic footwall to hanging wall (after Kerr and Gibson, 1993):
West 3919 Formation, at the base of the sequence, was the product of a period of explosive rhyolitic and dacitic volcanism and high energy sedimentation. It consists of two members, the Coreshack and Powerline members, that are geochemically distinct and are separated by an unconformity that is, in part, erosional. The Coreshack Member, which is dacitic, includes, from bottom to top: i). silicified dacitic flows and hyaloclastites; ii). thin cherty units, interbedded with laminated pyrite-sphalerite-gold mineralisation of the Coreshack Zone; iii). polymictic, phreatomagmatic, normally-graded breccias and; iv). poorly sorted, crudely graded, lapilli- to ash-sized debris flows dominated by subrounded 0.5 to 2 cm rhyolitic clasts, as well as other exotic fragments. Sub-economic Au-Cu mineralisation (the New Zone is associated with disseminated pyrite and pyrite-chlorite-sericite-(chalcopyrite-sphalerite) veinlets and sericite-quartz alteration within the dacitic debris flows. The Powerline Member, of the same formation, is rhyolitic, and comprises a basal volcaniclastic and an upper epiclastic unit. The volcaniclastic units comprise lithic-vitric lapilli tuffs deposited in upward-fining cycles. The overlying epiclastic rocks include well-bedded pyritic turbidites, a quartz-porphyritic rhyolitic flow characterised by flank and carapace breccias containing blocks of massive pyrite tens of centimetres across, and plane-bedded, lapilli- to ash-sized reworked tuffs. Gold mineralisation in this zone is associated with disseminated sulphides within the reworked tuffs.
Main Mine Formation, which is composed of volcanic rocks, dominated by rhyolite flows and low-energy sedimentation, as evidenced by proximal, massive to poorly bedded, compositionally homogenous tuff breccias. Fragmental rocks of this formation host the H orebodies and the Horne 5 deposit. A volumetric outpouring of aphyric to sparsely feldspar-porphyritic lobe-hyaloclastite flows were erupted from a vent complex to the west of the H orebodies, whilst unconsolidated rhyolitic debris was eroded and deposited eastward from this vent complex. This debris was deposited into an adjacent, linear topographic depression to form a thick breccia pile of principally proximal, massive to poorly bedded, compositionally homogenous tuff breccias (flank or talus breccias), and finer grained subaqueous granular mass flow deposits (reworked tuffs) that were inter-bedded with water-lain lithic-crystal tuffs. These rhyolitic flows and associated volcaniclastic rocks form the 1340 Member of the Main Mine Formation. Some flow tongues or lobes are found extending eastward from the vent complex into the trough-fill breccias. Other flow lobes in the upper levels of the mine have been seen to thicken toward the east and may represent coulees (short viscous lava flows) that erupted from a second rhyolitic vent complex to the east of the Upper H orebody. Flows from this eastern vent complex comprise the immediate SE footwall to the Lower H orebody in lower mine levels of the deposit. The overlying Five Shaft Member includes lapilli tuffs and tuff breccias that are more polymictic, locally containing up to 5% quartz porphyritic pumice fragments up to 5 cm across, as well as clasts of up to 10 cm across of massive pyrite. These members can show well preserved sedimentary structures, including plane-parallel bedding and scour channels, and are interpreted to be the result of high-concentration turbidity currents and grain-dominant debris flows. The contact between the 1340 and Five Shaft members is gradational with the Upper and Lower H orebodies straddling this ill-defined contact. The Horne 5 deposit is hosted near the base of the Five Shaft Member.
REMNOR Formation, the uppermost unit of the Horne sequence, characterised by a lower zone of passive rhyolitic flow volcanism, followed by minor phreatomagmatic eruptions and debris flows. The REMNOR Formation has an eruption style similar to the intra-cauldron Central Mine Sequence, in contrast to either the West 3919 or Main Mine formations. The Icestope Member of this formation is composed of a series of rhyolitic lobe-hyaloclastite flows that are sparsely quartz-feldspar porphyritic, and were erupted from a vent somewhere east of the H orebodies. The deposition of a small, <1 Mt, volcanogenic pyrite mound, known as the G orebody, on the flank of the uppermost flow, is interpreted to reflect a significant volcano-sedimentary hiatus following flow eruption. The G orebody is zoned, from a central, massive pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-pyrrhotite spine to a thinly bedded pyrite-sphalerite fringe. The lens is underlain by a zoned discordant alteration pipe characterised by a Fe-chlorite core and sericitic margins. Unlike the Mine sequence deposits, however, nearly all the mineralisation associated with the G hydrothermal system came from Au-rich pyrite-sericite veins and phreatic pebble breccia dykes in the underlying alteration pipe rather than from the massive sulphide lens itself (Kerr and Mason, 1990). The G orebody is overlain by a <25 m thick, laterally extensive package of rhyodacitic volcaniclastic units which comprise the 56 Sill Member, the basal section of which is 1 m to 5 m thick, and composed of very siliceous plane-bedded ash tuff which is interbedded with poorly sorted crystal-lithic lapilli tuffs. The 56 Sill Member is ultimately conformably overlain by an amygdaloidal basaltic andesite flow that might have heralded the cessation of Horne sequence felsic volcanism and the onset of a new volcanic cycle.

Mineralisation

The following summarises the mineralisation at Horne (after Barrett et al., 1991 and Monecke et al., 2008):
  The principal Horne Mine orebodies, namely the Upper and Lower H and Horne 5 deposits, have a sub-vertical dip, and are hosted within rhyolitic flows, breccias, and tuffs that are bounded by the Andesite and the Horne Creek faults. The least altered rhyolites have low K2O contents and other geochemical features that indicate they belong to the FII tholeiitic series (Lesher et al., 1986). Graded volcaniclastic beds, metal zoning in the orebodies, and location of chloritised-mineralised rhyolites suggest the volcanic sequence youngs to the north. The volcanic rocks in the mineralised fault wedge are variably silicified and sericitised, with local zones in the orebody sidewalls and footwall being chloritised.

Upper and Lower H Orebodies - these deposits occurred as two podiform masses that are mainly restricted to the upper 950 m of the mine, although workings had extended to a depth of 2440 m below surface in lenses largely associated with Horne 5. The Upper H orebody has maximum dimensions in long section of 270 m along strike, 400 m down dip, and varies in thickness up to 100 m, in a tear-drop shape in cross section. The Lower H orebody abuts the Upper H and also has a tear-drop shape in both long and cross section. It has a maximum strike length of 260 m, extends down plunge for 600 m and is up to 150 m at its thickest. Both were composed of chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-pyrite-gold ore, and between 1927 and 1976 yielded 54 Mt of ore @ 2.2% Cu, 6.1 g/t Au, 13.0 g/t Ag, with <0.1% Zn and <0.01% Pb. A semi-continuous, up to 15 m wide, zone of chalcopyrite-rich Cu mineralisation occurs above the footwall and adjacent to the sidewalls of the orebodies. This grades stratigraphically upwards through mid level pyrrhotite-pyrite-rich, to upper pyrite-rich zones. Gold enrichments is found in some of the Cu-rich ores but also in overlying pyritic mineralisation and in adjacent host volcanic rocks. Cu-Au bearing chloritised rhyolites mainly occur in the western and eastern sidewalls and at down-plunge terminations of the H orebodies.

Horne 5 Deposit is a massive to semi-massive sulphide body that stratigraphically overlies the Lower H orebody. It is a steeply plunging, tabular zone that is composed of numerous lenses of massive pyrite, intercalated with intensely altered felsic volcaniclastic rocks. It extends over a strike length of >1000 m, persisting to a depth of at least 2650 m, and ranges from ~30 to 140 m in thickness (Sinclair, 1971; Fisher, 1974; Gibson et al., 2000). Like the H orebodies, is confined to the fault-bounded wedge between the east-west Andesite and Horne Creek faults. The host stratigraphy, where undeformed and not complicated by dolerite intrusions, has a sub-vertical dip and youngs to the north. Smaller massive sulphide lenses such as A, C and D also occur south of the Upper H orebody, the largest of which was the No. 19 orebody, whilst the G orebody lies to the north of the Upper H orebody (After Bancroft and Atkinson, 1987).
  Pyrite is the dominant sulphide in Horne 5, although discrete sections of the deposit contain sphalerite, chalcopyrite and gold in economic concentrations (Sinclair, 1971). Sphalerite is the second most abundant sulphide at Horne 5, although it is virtually absent in the Lower H, but it is much less frequent than pyrite. Chalcopyrite is common in much of the deposit, but is usually only present in very minor amounts. Pyrrhotite is even less common than chalcopyrite, whilst galena is rare. Based on a set of drill-core samples of massive sulphides Barrett et al., (1991) estimated the Horne 5 deposit averages 0.12% Cu, 1.8% Zn, 1.4 g/t Au and 26.6 g/t Ag.
  A restored model of the stratigraphic level that hosts the H orebodies and the Horne 5 deposit, is dominated from south to north by rhyolite flows and breccias, then rhyolite breccias and tuffs. These volcanic rocks have been interpreted to represent proximal to distal facies on a volcanic edifice that was affected by widespread silicification and sericitic alteration. A graben system on the flank of the edifice is interpreted to be the depositional site of the H orebodies, with high-temperature fluid discharge along the graben margin faults, resulting in zones of chlorite alteration, stringer-type copper mineralisation, and gold in rhyolites, whilst the grabens were infilled with Cu-bearing massive to semi-massive sulphides. Lower on the edifice slope, in the more distal Horne 5 deposit, Zn-bearing pyritic sulphide lenses accumulated within broader, breccia-based depressions, more or less on strike from the H orebodies. It has been concluded that mineralisation at Horne 5 may reflect lower-temperature and more diffuse fluid discharge through a permeable sequence of volcaniclastic rocks.
  The Horne 5 deposit extends from above a depth of 760 m to deeper than 2500 m. It only reaches a significant thickness and breadth below 1000 m, which corresponds to the deepest extent of the Lower H orebody shown. Below this level, the Horne 5 deposit ranges from 15 to 125 m in thickness (Fisher 1970; Sinclair 1971).
  In plan view, at a depth of 990 m, the Horne 5 deposit has a cigar-shape and is ~500 m long and 30 to 60 m thick, composed of ~eight massive pyritic lenses with intervening rhyolite breccias containing disseminated pyrite. At a depth of 1830 m, it is at least 750 m long, with a thickness of up to 100 m and contains ~10 main pyritic lenses, the largest of which is ~60 m long and ~5 to 25 m thick. A transect on the same level shows two zones of mineralisation separated by ~35 m of rhyolite. The lower of these two zones is composed of disseminated sulphides, whereas the upper zone comprises 10 m of massive sulphides that pass upwards into further disseminated mineralisation. At a depth of 2500 m, mineralisation is mainly disseminated.
  On the 990 m level, zinc reaches ~5% towards the centre of the main pyritic lens, whilst gold is generally low at <3.4 g/t throughout. At a depth of 1525 m, the highest copper contents occur in the stratigraphically lower 6 m and upper 10 m of the sulphide lens and the flanking mineralised tuffs, whilst zinc values are low, and gold is generally <3.4 g/t throughout. Contouring of metal grades at the Horne 5 deposit indicates that zinc, copper and gold trends are roughly parallel to the ESE strike of the stratigraphy, with zinc contents generally highest, i.e., >1% within the main lenses of massive pyrite (Barrett et al., 1991).
  Lenses of massive pyrite that are 3 to 35 m thick and contain local sphalerite enrichments, are most extensively developed between depths of 1140 and 1525 m. By the latter, pyritic sulphides are as thick as ~50 m, whilst between that depth and 2440 m, there are 7 to 10 m thick, semi-continuous lenses of massive pyrite. On the latter level, a lens of disseminated mineralisation has a ~275 m strike length and is 6 to 25 m thick, with no significant massive sulphide lenses. Silver values on the latter level are generally <35 g/t, averaging 12 g/t Ag. Between depths of 760 to 2130 m, the Horne 5 deposit is overlain by up to 60 m of un-mineralised rhyolite breccia, then by ~100 m of rhyolite tuff (Fisher 1970; Sinclair 1971).
  In general, mineralisation at Horne 5 occurs as a series of marginally overlapping pyritic lenses within a sequence of variably mineralised rhyolitic volcaniclastic rocks that are broadly concordant with stratigraphy over a strike length of ~750 m, to a depth of ~1800 m, and a thickness of 30 to 100 m. If restored to a palaeo-horizontal orientation (assuming that is a valid reconstruction), most of the Horne 5 zone would lie north of the Lower H orebody, which in turn would lie north of the Upper H orebody. The Horne 5 deposit appears to have stratigraphically overlapped the top of the lower H orebody at its original northern end at a depth of 760 m, and to have accumulated in a broad depression that was elongated north-south (assuming no rotation on bounding faults). The depression was deepest between what are now depths of 1375 and 1525 m, where the total mass of sulphide is greatest. Over this interval, the Horne 5 deposit was underlain by massive rhyolite at its (original) southern end, and by rhyolite breccias at its northern end.
  Barrett et al. (1991) interpreted two main fault-controlled sub-vertical fluid discharge sites extended along the two flanks of the Horne graben, straddling the H orebodies and then the Horne 5 deposit. The large Zn-bearing pyritic lenses in the Horne 5 deposit are regarded as probably having originated from lower temperature fluids than did those forming the Cu-rich H orebodies, but being delivered along extensions of the same syn-volcanic fault system. Although the Horne 5 deposit massive sulphides are richer in zinc, lead, antimony, arsenic and cadmium, they are much lower in copper and gold than those of the H orebodies, and lack the Cu-rich cores. The volcanics between the two faults have all been subjected to hydrothermal alteration. The main alteration minerals are quartz, sericite and chlorite with lesser albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. Over 90% of the alteration is quartz-sericite, although less extensive volumes of chlorite are found in the immediate vicinity of the massive sulphides. A network of gold bearing chlorite veinlets are superimposed on the quartz-sericite in both the hangingwall and footwall to the main massive sulphides.
  Two elongated zones of somewhat higher gold contents in the Horne 5 deposit may mark the general locations of hydrothermal discharge in this area (Kerr and Mason, 1990). These Au-rich pyritic lenses were partially mined from 1967 to 1976. This mineralisation is likely both replacive within sub-sea floor volcanic rocks, and deposited with those same rocks.

Production, Reserves and Resources

Historic production from the Horne Mine, which included section of Horne 5, between discovery in 1923 to closure in 1976 was (Hardie et al., 2021):
  48.722 Mt @ 2.1% Cu, 11 g/t Ag, 5.7 g/t Au;

The remaining NI 43-101 compliant Mineral Resource in the Horne 5 deposit at March 2021 was (Hardie et al., 2021):
  Measured + Indicated Mineral Resource - 105.606 Mt @ 1.44 g/t Au, 14.32 g/t Ag, 0.17% Cu = 2.25 g/t AuEquiv..
  Inferred Mineral Resource - 24.311 Mt @ 1.35 g/t Au, 21.4 g/t Ag, 0.19% Cu = 2.22 g/t AuEquiv..
  including
  Proved + Probable Ore Reserves - 80.9 Mt @ 1.44 g/t Au, 14.14 g/t Ag, 0.17% Cu, 0.77% Zn.

Much of the information in this summary has been drawn from: Hardie, C., Bewick, R., Boulianne, Y., Bratty, M., De Vos, K., Harvey, A., Mailloux, M., Primeau, P., Vallières, Y., Gourde, D., Boudreau, S., Pelletier, C., Gaulin, L., Fontaine, R. and Turgeon, D., 2021 - Feasibility study update, Horne 5 Gold Project, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec, Canada; an NI 43-101 Technical Report prepared for Falco Resources Ltd.; 963p.

For more detail see the reference(s) listed below.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2021.     Record last updated: 16/12/2022
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.


Horne 5

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Kerr D J, Gibson H L  1993 - A comparison of the Horne volcanogenic massive Sulfide deposit and intracauldron deposits of the mine sequence, Noranda, Quebec: in    Econ. Geol.   v88 pp 1419-1442
Krushnisky, A., Mercier-Langevin, P., Ross, P.-S., Goutier, J., McNicoll, V., Moore, L., Monecke, T., Jackson, S.E., Yang, Z., Petts, D.C. and Pilote, C.,  2023 - Geology and Controls on Gold Enrichment at the Horne 5 Deposit and Implications for the Architecture of the Gold-Rich Horne Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Complex, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada: in    Econ. Geol.   v.118, pp. 285-318. doi: 10.5382/econgeo.4978.
MacLean W H, Hoy L D  1991 - Geochemistry of hydrothermally altered rocks of the Horne Mine, Noranda, Quebec: in    Econ. Geol.   v86 pp 506-528
Taylor B E, de Kemp E, Grunsky E, Martin L, Maxwell G, Rigg D, Goutier J, Lauziere K and Dube B,  2014 - Three-Dimensional Visualization of the Archean Horne and Quemont Au-Bearing Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Hydrothermal Systems, Blake River Group, Quebec : in    Econ. Geol.   v.109 pp. 183-203


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