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Iranian Porphyry Copper and Epithermal Gold Province - Sungun, Masjed Daghi, Haft Cheshmeh, Ali Javad, Kahang, Ali Abad, Darreh Zereshk, Sari Gunay, Char Zard, Sar Cheshmeh, Meiduk, Chah Firouzeh, Iju, Dar Alu, Shadan Khupik, Chah Zaghou, Maher Abad
Iran
Main commodities: Cu Au Mo Ag


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Iran occupies section of the central Tethyan Belt, a late Mesozoic to Cenozoic orogenic belt that extends from Indochina to southern Europe and to Morocco in northwestern Africa. It contains extensive porphyry copper-gold and epithermal gold resources similar in scope to those of the Cordillera of the Americas. An important group of these deposits are in Iran. The most significant is the large Sar Cheshmeh orebody.

Regional Setting

  Iran is located in the central section of the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt which is the result of a series of complex collisions involving continental blocks that had separated from the northern margin of Gondwana, and migrated northward since the Mesozoic to be successively accreted to the southwestern margin of Eurasia (Berberian and King, 1981; Stampfli, 2000; Stocklin, 1974). This involved the opening and closure of the Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan oceans. The first of these oceans separated the migrating Iranian plate from Eurasia during the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic and had closed by the late Triassic. The second was located between the Iranian and Arabian plate and opened in the Permian and persisted through the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic, before closing at times variably estimated to be from the Late Cretaceous to Miocene (Agard et al., 2011; Aghazadeh et al., 2011; Allen and Armstrong, 2008; Dargahi et al., 2010; Horton et al., 2008; McQuarrie et al., 2003; Sengör and Natal'in, 1996; Stampfli, 2000; Stocklin, 1974; Yilmaz, 1993). Sutures and/or magmatic arcs related to the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean have been recognised in the northern parts of the country, from the Caucasus Mountains, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea to the northeastern border with Turkmenistan. More extensive Neo-Tethys sutures are mapped diagonally across the country from the Caucasus Mountains in the NW, through the Zagros Mountains that are to the NE of and parallel to the Persian Gulf, to southwestern Pakistan. This zone marks the southwestern margin of the Iranian Plateau (or Central Iranian Micro-continent) that forms the core of the country, and separates the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt to the SW from the Mesozoic Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatic arc and to its immediate NE, the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar arc. Another Neo-Tethys suture zone, the ~1000 km long Sistan Suture, which has a north-south trend, follows the eastern margin of the same plateau, separating its eastern terrane, the Lut Block from the East Iran (or Afghan) Block west of the Afghanistan border. A third Neo-Tethys suture zone fringes the northern, western and southwestern margin of the plateau, with the latter section converging and merging with the transition between the Sanandaj-Sirjan and Urumieh-Dokhtar arcs. Subduction of these oceans resulted in magmatic arcs in the Caucasus in the far north of the country, which split in northern Iran, with one strand trending east between the Caspian Sea and the northern Iranian Plateau, while the second followed the southwestern margin of the same plateau, to then curve eastward along its southern margin forming the Mesozoic Sanandaj-Sirjan and Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arcs.
  Magmatic rocks that are dominantly directly related to Neo-Tethys Ocean subduction are restricted to the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Azizi and Jahangiri, 2008) in the Zagros Mountains. However, similar aged magmatic rocks that are syn- and post-collision are the predominant components of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc, the Alborz Magmatic Belt along the southern margin of the Caspian Sea to northeastern Iran, and in east Iran along the western margin of the Iran Plateau (Agard et al., 2011; Verdel et al., 2011).
  The evolution of the Neo-Tethys Ocean closure in Iran is associated with a range of mineralisation and metal deposits including porphyry copper deposits. These deposits are developed on the fringes of the Iranian plateau which is located in the centre of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic and metallogenic belt, and include >50 such Cu-Mo/Au deposits, including Sar Cheshmeh and Sungun. Porphyry copper deposits in Iran were temporally developed during the final closure stage of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, whilst no porphyry deposits are known that were related to the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean and the initial stages of Neo-Tethys evolution. Generally, porphyry copper mineralisation is associated with Oligo-Miocene intrusive bodies along the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc from the Caucasus to the southern Pakistan border, although some have been discovered in the eastern part of the country (Aghazadeh et al., 2012; McInnes et al., 2003; Richards et al., 2012; Shafiei et al., 2009).
  These deposits are centred on four belts: i). Arasbaran, to the NW in the Caucasus; ii). Saveh-Yazd in the middle segment of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc; iii). Kerman, that represents the southeastern continuation of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc; and iv). East Iran on the eastern margin of the Iranian Plateau.
  A fifth, east-west belt along the southern coast with the Indian Ocean, the Makran Arc which differs from the adjoing Kerman belt, differs in that subduction is ongoing (McCall, 1997) whereas it ceased in late Eocene time in the Kerman belt (Dargahi et al., 2010).

Arasbaran Porphyry Copper Belt

  The Arasbaran Porphyry Copper Belt in the Caucasus northwestern Iran is 70 to 80 km wide and >400 km long. It is mostly composed of Cretaceous to Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks and Cenozoic intrusive bodies. Magmatism in the belt commenced in the Cretaceous and continued intensively through the Cenozoic to Quaternary (Aghazadeh, 2009). The Cenozoic to Quaternary volcanism includes two main episodes during the Eocene and Late Miocene to Quaternary. The Eocene episode comprised a mafic to intermediate sequence with weakly alkaline and shoshonitic affinities (Dilek et al., 2009). In contrast the late Miocene to Quaternary magmatic rocks are calcalkaline to shoshonitic with ultrapotassic mafic to felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks (Aghazadeh, 2009; Ahmadzadeh et al., 2010). The most recent magmatic rocks are alkaline and have 'within-plate' geochemical signatures (Kheirkhah et al., 2009). Separate large granitoid plutons with different compositions and ages were intruded into the belt during the Oligocene to Miocene (Aghazadeh et al., 2010, 2011; Castro et al., 2013; Jahangiri, 2007). Plutonic intrusions began with a Mid to Late Oligocene calc-alkaline association that was followed by Late Oligocene to Early Miocene shoshonitic intrusions (Aghazadeh et al., 2011; Castro et al., 2013), and then by late stage dacitic to granodioritic and monzonitic domes and intrusive bodies. Middle to Late Oligocene rocks have a typical calcalkaline arc affinity, whilst Late Oligocene to Early Miocene shoshonitic intrusions and late Miocene domes have adakitic characteristics (Aghazadeh et al., 2011; Jahangiri, 2007).
  Porphyry copper mineralisation in this belt, including the Sungun deposit, is mainly associated with Oligo-Miocene monzonitic and monzodioritic intrusive bodies. There are more than 10 porphyry copper deposits and prospects in the belt including the Masjed Daghi (204 Mt @ 0.34% Cu, 2 g/t Au; USGS MRDatabase), Haft Cheshmeh (300 Mt @ 0.38% Cu, 0.035% Mo; Hassanpour and Rajabpour, 2019) and Ali Javad (81.5 Mt @ 0.75% Cu; 37.8 Mt @ 1.86 g/t Au; Hajalilou and Aghazadeh, 2016) deposits, and the Saheb Divan, Sunajeel, Niaz, Miveh Rud and Kighal prospects. The small Qarachilar porphyry style deposit, with an ~0.2 Mt reserve of Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation, is located in the northwestern section of the Arasbaran Belt, ~70 km north of Tabriz. It is interpreted to be related to Eocene to Oligocene magmatic-hydrothermal activity (Amini Fazl, 1994; Mokhtari, 2008; Zakeri et al, 2011; Mokhtari et al., 2013; Zakeri, 2013, all in Persian, quoted by Kouhestani et al, 2018 in English). Mineralisation occurs as three chalcopyrite, molybdenite and gold bearing pyrite-quartz-sulphide veins that cut granodiorite-quartz monzodiorite rocks of the Qaradagh batholith, with associate silicification and intermediate argillic, carbonate and propylitic alteration (Kouhestani et al, 2018).

Saveh-Yazd Porphyry Copper Belt

  This belt represents the middle segment of the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc. It is located between the cities of Saveh and Yazd and includes several porphyry copper deposits and prospects. Basement rocks in the belt are Infracambrian to Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks that are overlain by Mesozoic strata, which are, in turn, covered or intruded by Cenozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks. Cenozoic magmatic activity comprises two main stages: i). intense Paleogene volcanism followed by emplacement of Oligocene to Miocene mafic to felsic intrusives (Berberian and Berberian, 1981; Haschke et al., 2010; Honarmand et al., 2014); and ii). Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanism (Emami, 2000).
  The Eocene volcanic rocks of the Paleogene stage have a typical arc magmatic composition, considered to be related to Neo-Tethys subduction, whilst the younger phase of volcanism is adakitic in affinity (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2006; Omrani et al., 2008), interpreted to be related to slab break-off and thermal re-equilibration in a post-collisional tectonic setting (Omrani et al., 2008). Porphyry copper deposits in the Saveh-Yazd Porphyry Copper Belt include Kahang (70 Mt @ 0.6% Cu, 0.007% Mo), Dalli, Ali Abad (40 Mt @ 0.73% Cu, 0.0059% Mo, 19 g/t Ag) and Darreh Zereshk (23 Mt @ 0.97% Cu, 0.004% Mo, 19 g/t Ag). Biotite and sericite related to potassic and phyllic alteration at the Dalli deposit yielded Early Miocene ages of 21 and 17 Ma respectively (Ayati et al., 2013), whilst secondary biotite and sericitised rocks from the mineralised and altered intrusions in the Ali Abad and Darreh Zereshk deposits yielded an age of ca. 16 Ma (40Ar/39Ar; Zarasvandi et al., 2005). The Miocene epithermal Sari Gunay gold deposit is located to the NW of this belt in the Tabak structural and magmatic trend. Other deposits include the breccia-hosted epithermal Char Zard (2.5 Mt @ 12.7 g/t Ag, 1.7 g/t Au for 28.6 t Ag, 3.8 t Au; Kouhestani et al., 2012) deposit located within a high-K, calc-alkaline andesitic to rhyolitic volcanic complex in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc.

Kerman Porphyry Copper Belt

  This NNW-SSE elongated 500 x 80 km belt hosts the bulk of the porphyry copper ore in Iran. It is the southeast continuation of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc, and is predominantly made up of folded and faulted early Tertiary volcano-sedimentary rocks. It has been divided into the NW and central (Sarduieh-Dahaj) and SE (Jebal-e-Barez) sections. Porphyry copper deposits are common in the former, but less so in the latter. Magmatism commenced in a marine environment during the Early Eocene, mainly composed of mafic to felsic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks with associated sedimentary interbeds (Bahr Aseman Complex). These were covered by Mid to Late Eocene (Hassanzadeh, 1993) marine volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Razak Complex, succeeded by the Late Eocene to Middle Oligocene shoshonitic affinity Hezar Complex (Dimitrijevic, 1973; Hassanzadeh, 1993). During the Oligocene, this magmatism was predominantly followed by intrusion of the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic Jebal-e-Barez type granitoids (Hassanzadeh, 1993; McInnes et al., 2003; Shafiei et al., 2009) interpreted to represent a post-collisional tectonic setting (Dargahi et al., 2010). Subsequently, shallow level Mid to Late Miocene intrusives, known as the Kuh-e-Panj type granitoids were intruded, decreasing in abundance to the SE. These have an adakitic composition and host porphyry copper mineralisation (Hassanzadeh, 1993; McInnes et al., 2005; Shafiei et al., 2009). The Pliocene Masahim and Bid Khan and related stratovolcanoes, which predominantly occur in the central to northwestern section of the belt, represent intermediate to felsic magmatism as do numerous dacitic and rhyolitic domes (Dimitrijevic, 1973).
  More than 20 porphyry copper deposits are located in the Kerman Belt, mainly within in the Dahaj-Sarduieh section. It has been suggested that these deposits are associated with younger Kuh-e-Panj type intrusives and that the earlier Jebal-e-Barez type granitoids are barren (e.g. McInnes et al., 2003; Shafiei et al., 2009). Major deposits include Sar Cheshmeh and Meiduk, as well as Chah Firouzeh (149 Mt @ 0.41% Cu; USGS MRDatabase), Iju (74 Mt @ 0.31% Cu; USGS MRDatabase) and Dar Alu (186 Mt @ 0.36% Cu; USGS MRDatabase) and the Abdar, Bondar-e-Hanza and Kerver prospects. The Chah-Mesi polymetallic Cu-Au vein deposit is located 1.5 km to the south of the Meiduk porphyry copper mine, with average grades of 1.27% Cu, 1.01% Pb, 2.12% Zn, 10 to 150 g/t Ag, and locally up to 7 g/t Au (Altberger, 2019).

East Iran Porphyry Copper Belt

  Tertiary magmatism on the eastern margin of the Iranian Plateau in the Lut-Sistan region of eastern Iran is attributed to the evolution of the Sistan Ocean, part of the ocean surrounding the Central Iranian Micro-continent during the Cretaceous (McCall, 1997). The Sistan Ocean persisted from at least the Late Cretaceous (Babazadeh and De Wever, 2004), probably closing by eastward subduction during the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene due to Early-middle Eocene collision between the Lut and Afghan blocks (Pang et al., 2013; Tirrul et al., 1983). This collision produced the Sistan suture as described above, composed of the older Ratuk and the younger Neh complexes. Postcollisional magmatism along the suture zone as well as in the Lut block during the Eocene to Oligocene is attributed to convective removal of the lithosphere and asthenospheric upwelling during extensional collapse of eastern Iran (Pang et al., 2013). Several ore deposits in the belt are associated with Eocene-Oligocene magmatism, including porphyry copper and epithermal base and precious metal deposits (Richards et al., 2012). Porphyry Cu±Mo±Au deposits clustered in the northern part of the belt include Shadan (Khupik), Chah Zaghou and Maher Abad (Maherabad). Porphyry intrusions are of a typical calc-alkaline to weakly shoshonitic nature with arc-related magma characteristics and a tendency to adakitic nature (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012). Hydrothermal biotite from the Shadan porphyry yielded a Late Eocene Ar-Ar age of 37.26±0.26 Ma (Richards et al., 2012), while zircons separated from the Maher Abad ore-bearing porphyry stock yielded a Late Eocene U-Pb age of 39.0±0.8 Ma (Karimpour et al., 2011). These age data show that porphyry copper mineralisation in eastern Iran is the oldest porphyry mineralisation period in Iran.

This summary is largely drawn from Aghazadeh et al. (2015).



The copper deposits of Iran were the subject of one of the papers delivered at an international conference in Perth in late 1998, and printed in the associated volume: Porter T M (Ed.) "Porphyry and Hydrothermal Copper and Gold Deposits: A Global Perspective", now available through PGC Publishing, Adelaide, Australia

Click here for the full Abstract of the paper.

These same deposits were also the subject of a paper in the PGC Publication: Porter T M (Ed.) "Super Porphyry Copper and Gold Deposits: A Global Perspective", now available through PGC Publishing, Adelaide, Australia

Click here for the full Abstract of the paper.

For more information see the separate records for the Sar Cheshmeh, Sungun (Songon) and Meiduk deposits.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2015.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.


    Selected References
Afshooni, S.Z., Mirnejad, H., Esmaeily, D. and Haroni, H.A.,  2013 - Mineral chemistry of hydrothermal biotite from the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (NE Isfahan), Central Province of Iran: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.54, pp. 214-232.
Aghazadeh, M., Hou, Z., Badrzadeh, Z. and Zhou, L.,  2015 - Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic setting of porphyry copper deposits in Iran: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.70, pp. 385-406.
Aliyari, F., Afzal, P., Harati, H. and Hou, Z.,  2020 - Geology, mineralogy, ore fluid characteristics, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Kahang Cu-(Mo) porphyry deposit, Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc, Central Iran: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.116, doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103238.
Altenberger, F., Raith, J.G., Bakker, R.J. and Zarasvandi, A.,  2022 - The Chah-Mesi epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn-(Ag-Au) deposit and its link to the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, SE Iran: Evidence from sulfosalt chemistry and fluid inclusions: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.142, 23p. doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2022.104732.
Atapour H and Aftab A,  2007 - The geochemistry of gossans associated with Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran: Implications for exploration and the environment: in    J. of Geochemical Exploration   v93 pp 47-65
Bafti, B.S., Niedermann, S., Sosnicka, M. and Gleeson, S.A.,  2022 - Microthermometry and noble gas isotope analysis of magmatic fluid inclusions in the Kerman porphyry Cu deposits, Iran: constraints on the source of ore-forming fluids: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.57, pp. 147-154.
Barak, S., Bahroudi, A. and Jozanikohan, G.,  2017 - Exploration of Kahang porphyry copper deposit using advanced integration of geological, remote sensing, geochemical, and magnetics data: in    Journal of Mining and Environment,   v.17, 22p. DOI: 10.22044/jme.2017.5419.1357
Hajalilou, B. and Aghazadeh, M.,  2016 - Geological, Alteration and Mineralization Characteristics of Ali Javad Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Arasbaran Zone, NW Iran: in    Open Journal of Geology,   v.6, pp. 859-874.
Harati, H., Khakzad, A., Omran, N.R., Afzal, P., Hosseini, M. and Harati, S.,  2013 - Identifying Hydrothermal Alteration: Geochemical Particulars based on Lithogeochemical Data from the Kahang Cu Porphyry Deposit, Central Iran: in    Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences,   v.5, pp. 1-12,
Hassanpour, S. and Rajabpour, S.,  2019 - The Kighal Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, NW Iran: Insights into Origin and Evolution of the Mineralizing Fluids: in    Russian Geology and Geophysics,   v.60, pp. 1141-1162.
Hezarkhani A,   2006 - Hydrothermal evolution of the Sar-Cheshmeh porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Iran: Evidence from fluid inclusions : in    J. of Asian Earth Sciences   v28 pp 409-422
Hwang, J., Park, J.-W., Wan, B. and Honarmand, M.,  2023 - Contrasting platinum-group element geochemistry of post-collisional porphyry Cu ± Au ore-bearing and barren suites in the central and southeastern Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, Iran: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.58, pp. 1583-1603.
Komeili, S.S., Khalili, M., Haroni, H.A., Bagheri, H. and Ayati, F.,  2017 - The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan) based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data: in    Journal of Economic Geology, (In Farsi, with English Abstract)   v.8, 23p. DOI: 10.22067/econg.v8i2.37178.
Kouhestani, H., Ghaderi, M., Zaw, K., Meffre, S. and Emami, M.H.,  2012 - Geological setting and timing of the Chah Zard breccia-hosted epithermal gold-silver deposit in the Tethyan belt of Iran: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.47, pp. 425-440.
Kouhestani, H., Mokhtaria, M.A.A., Chang, Z., Stein, H.J. and Johnson, C.A.,  2018 - Timing and genesis of ore formation in the Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au deposit, Ahar-Arasbaran metallogenic zone, NW Iran: Evidence from geology, fluid inclusions, OľS isotopes and ReľOs geochronology: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.102, pp. 757-775. doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2018.10.007.
McInnes B I A, Evans N J, Fu F Q, Garwin S, Belousova E, Griffin W L, Bertens A, Sukarna D, Permanadewi S, Andrew R L and Deckart K,  2005 - Thermal History Analysis of Selected Chilean, Indonesian and Iranian Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au Deposits: in Porter T M (Ed), 2005 Super Porphyry Copper & Gold Deposits - A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide,   v.1 pp. 27-42
Rajabpour, S., Hassanpour, S. and Rahnama, Z.,  2023 - A regional petrogenetic-metallogenic perspective on the Kighal porphyry Cu deposit in the Sungun cluster, the Arasbaran magmatic belt of NW Iran: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.58, pp. 1171-1189.
Richards, J.P. and Sholeh, A.,  2016 - The Tethyan Tectonic History and Cu-Au Metallogeny of Iran: in Richards, J.P. (Ed.), 2016 Tectonics and Metallogeny of the Tethyan Orogenic Belt, SEG Special Publication 19,   Ch. 7, pp. 193-212.
Samani B,  1998 - Distribution, Setting and Metallogenesis of Copper Deposits in Iran: in Porter T M (Ed.), 1998 Porphyry and Hydrothermal Copper and Gold Deposits - A Global Perspective PGC Publishing, Adelaide    pp. 151-174
Shafiei, B., Haschke, M. and Shahabpour, J.,  2009 - Recycling of orogenic arc crust triggers porphyry Cu mineralization in Kerman Cenozoic arc rocks, southeastern Iran: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.44, pp. 265-283.
Siahcheshm, K., Calagari, A.A., Abedini, A. and Lentz, D.R.,  2012 - Halogen signatures of biotites from the Maher-Abad porphyry copper deposit, Iran: characterization of volatiles in syn- to post-magmatic hydrothermal fluids: in    International Geology Review   v.54, pp. 1353-1368. doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2011.639487.
Siahcheshm, K., Calagari, A.A., Abedini, A. and Sindern, S.,  2014 - Elemental mobility and mass changes during alteration in the Maher-Abad porphyry Cu-Au deposit, SW Birjand, Eastern Iran: in    Periodico di Mineralogia,   v.83, pp. 55-76.
Siahcheshma, K., Calagari, A.A. and Abedini, A.,  2014 - Hydrothermal evolution in the Maher-Abad porphyry Cu-Au deposit, SW Birjand, Eastern Iran: Evidence from fluid inclusions: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.58, pp. 1-13
Waterman G C and Hamilton R L,  1975 - The Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit : in    Econ. Geol.   v.70 pp. 568-576
Zarasvandi A, Liaghat S and Marcos Zentilli M,  2005 - Porphyry Copper Deposits of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc, Iran: in Porter, T.M. (Ed), 2005 Super Porphyry Copper & Gold Deposits - A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide,   v.2 pp. 441-452
Zarasvandi, A., Liaghat, S. and Zentilli, M.,  2005 - Geology of the Darreh-Zerreshk and Ali-Abad Porphyry Copper Deposits, Central Iran: in    International Geology Review   v.47 pp. 620-646.


Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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