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Almalyk - Kalmakyr, Yoshlik, Dalnee; Saukbulak - Sarycheku, Kyzata
Main commodities: Cu Au

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The Almalyk District porphyry Cu-Au complex is located adjacent to the town of Almalyk, 65 km to the southeast of Tashkent in eastern Uzbekistan (#Location: Kal'makyr - 40° 48' 44"N, 69° 38' 49"E; Sarycheku - 40° 46' 33"N, 69° 46' 37"E).

The Almalyk District complex encompasses the ore deposits at Kal'makyr (2.5 Gt @ 0.38% Cu, 0.5 g/t Au; Golovanov et al., 2005) and Dalnee or Dalnye (2.8 Gt @ 0.36% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au; Golovanov et al., 2005). The two deposits are separated by the near east-west Kal'makyr Fault which has down-faulted the Dalnee deposit in the north, relative to Kal'makyr. Subsequent to 2005, a preliminary feasibility study has been completed into the development of a larger tonnage of lower grade mineralisation encompassing and including both the Kal'makyr and Dalnee deposits. This mineralisation is to be mined in a much larger open 'super-pit' known as the Yoshlik mine (in two stages, Yoshlik-1 and Yoshlik-2). It comprises a JORC compliant total Mineral Resource of 17 Gt @ 0.26% Cu, 0.34 g/t Au which comprises 44 Mt of copper and 5720 t of contained gold (Mineral Resource Estimation and Pre-Feasibility Study prepared by SRK Consulting for Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine).

Another mineralised centre, the Saukbulak porphyry Cu-Au system, is located some 9 km to the SE of Kal'makyr. The Kyzata or Kuzata (700 Mt @ 0.85% Cu; Singer et al., 2005) and Sarycheku (200 Mt @ 0.5% Cu, 0.1 g/t Au; Golovanov et al., 2005) deposits constitute fault displaced segments of this system.

Green copper oxide mineralisation was discovered at Almalyk in 1926 during a geological mapping program. Subsequent exploration undertaken between 1931 and 1941 and from 1947 to 1951, was followed by the commencement of open pit mining at Kal'makyr in 1954. Additional exploration and delineation work between 1961 and 1980, and from 1986 to 1996 culminated in the estimation of reserves/resources of 2 Gt @ 0.38% Cu, 0.6 g/t Au, 0.006% Mo at a 0.2% Cu cut-off, plus 1700 Mt of lower grade 0.15 to 0.19% Cu (Golovanov et al., 2005). Uzbekistan's state-owned Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine (AMMC) commenced an expansion in 2017 by developing a major expansion of the Kal'makyr pit, as detailed above. The enlarged pit, known as the Yoshlik-1 (or Youth) mine, and the constructing a new copper concentrator, is planned to allow the doubling of copper and gold production by 2028. Ore production is scheduled for 2021, and is planned tol ramp up from the current 23 Mt to 65 Mt of ore per annum in 2023 and eventually to 74 Mt by 2035.

The Almalyk District, with its porphyry copper, base metal-skarn (e.g. Kurgashimkan, Kul'chulak and Kulemes) and epithermal gold-silver (e.g. Sartabutkan, Akturpak and Kaul'dy) deposits, is among the most economically important in central Asia (Grauch, 1996; Kremenetsky et al., 1996; Isakhojaev, 1998; Shayakubov et al., 1998; Shayakubov, 1999).

Geological Setting

The porphyry copper deposits of the Almalyk district are hosted within the southeastern part of the ~1500 km long, generally east-west trending Devono-Carboniferous Valerianov-Bel'tau-Kurama magmatic arc that lies within the Middle Tien Shan Terrane in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan. This terrane is part of the >2500 km long Tien Shan Belt of central Asia, which is, in turn, part of the larger Altaid Orogenic Collage, the western half of the trans-continental Central Asia Orogenic Belt (Sengör et al., 1993; Sengör and Natalin, 1996; Yakubchuk, 2004). The Tien Shan Belt was formed over, adjacent to and between a collage of micro-continental slivers on the southern margin of the large Khanty-Mansi back-arc basin that subsequently became an ocean. This ocean opened when those and other micro-continental slivers separated from the Eastern European Craton during the early Palaeozoic. Subsequent inversion and progressive closure of the Khanty-Mansi Ocean and amalgamation of the micro-continental slivers resulted in a complex of magmatic arcs, sutures and accretionary complexes.

The Tien Shan Belt is composed of three main elements, the Northern, Middle and Southern Tien Shan, each separated by a major suture/structural zone. The North Tien Shan comprises a micro-continental sliver of Proterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic magmatic arc rocks of the Baikalides and pre-Uralides located on the south-eastern margin of the greater Khanty-Mansi Ocean. To the south of the Nikolaev Line, which separates the Northern and Middle Tien Shan terranes, the latter comprises remnants of the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Valerian-Beltau-Kurama magmatic arc. This arc was the result of subduction of oceanic crust of an arm of the larger Khanty-Mansi Ocean, the 'Turkestan Basin', beneath the earlier arcs and micro-continental slivers of the Kyrgyz-Kazakh micro-continent to the north, represented locally by the Northern and Middle Tien Shan terranes. The Turkestan Basin had a NE-SW elongation and separated the contiguous Karakum/Alati-Tarim micro-continents to the south from the amalgamated Northern and Middle Tien Shan terranes to the north.
Almalyk tectonic setting
The Southern Tien Shan represents the youngest remnants deposition within the Khanty-Mansi Ocean, on the south-western limb of the giant Kazakh Orocline, and is separated from the Middle Tien Shan by the Southern Tien Shan Suture. That suture zone is defined by ophiolites and borders the strongly deformed fold and thrust belt of the Southern Tien Shan Terrane, which comprises an accretionary complex. That accretionary complex, formed over the continuing subduction zone during the final closure of the Turkestan Basin in the Permian, prior to and during the collision between the two micro-continental blocks on either side of that basin. The Northern and Middle Tien Shan terranes had been earlier accreted into the Kyrgyz-Kazakh micro-continent as part of the evolving proto-Eurasian mass that was being amalgamated to the north. This collisional event led to intense deformation of the sedimentary pile, development of nappe structures, and northward under-thrusting of the Karakum and Altai-Tarim micro-continents below the accretionary complex and the Valerian-Beltau-Kurama arc (Yakubchuk et al., 2002).

The initial pulse of the Valerian-Beltau-Kurama magmatic arc is preserved by un-eroded fragments of Siluro-Devonian I and I-A type granitoids and as Devonian continental-volcanogenic rocks composed of alkaline basalt to andesite-rhyolite with an Andean type geochemical signature. This volcano-plutonic belt is estimated to have been as much as 120 km wide, averaging, 50 to 70 km (Golovanov, et al., 2005). Between the Lower Visean and Lower Bashkirian in the Carboniferous, a break in magmatism occurred, with deposition continuing in a marine shelf regime on the passive southern margin of the Kyrgyz-Kazakh micro-continent, comprising thick carbonate and clastic sequences. The second pulse of magmatic activity accompanied the intense subduction of the Turkestan Basin beneath the Kyrgyz-Kazakh micro-continent during the Middle- to Late- Carboniferous resulting in basin closure, collision and formation of another Andean type volcano-plutonic belt over the active wedge. Rb-Sr age dating of volcanic rocks from this pulse yielded ages of 320 to 290 Ma.

The oldest rocks known within the Almalyk District are Ordovician to Lower Silurian shallow marine sequences of sandstone and mudstone that have locally been metamorphosed to greenschist facies. This sequence is unconformably overlain by Lower Devonian intermediate to felsic volcano-sedimentary rocks dated at 421 ±4 Ma (zircon U-Pb; Nurtaev B.S. quoted by Zhou et al. 2017). Subsequent shallow lagoonal facies in the Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous resulted in an ~1000 m thick succession of clastic and carbonate rocks, with gypsum and anhydrite occurring in its lower sections (Shayakubov et al., 1999). Overlying Upper Carboniferous alkali-rich felsic and intermediate volcanic and associated clastic suites host epithermal gold mineralisation in this region. The overlying Permian sequence is mainly composed of subaerial to shallow water mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks with interbedded conglomerate, siltstone and sandstone. Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary cover rocks occur locally in topographic depressions.

This succession has been extensively intruded by widespread late Palaeozoic intrusive magmatic rocks, which are estimated to occupy >60% of the region. In the Almalyk district, the oldest magmatic phase occurs as sporadic exposures of a Late Silurian complex of biotite-granite, granodiorite, plagio-granite and alaskite stocks and dykes that extend to the south. Later Palaeozoic intrusive rocks are scattered throughout the district, mainly comprising an assemblage including gabbro-diorite, diorite, monzonite, granodiorite porphyry and quartz porphyry, subdivided into three principal generations, namely an:
• Early Devonian quartz-porphyry, that generally occurs as interlayers within or above intermediate to felsic volcano-sedimentary units (Zhao et al., 2017). This represents the first pulse of Valerian-Beltau-Kurama magmatism in the district;
• Middle Carboniferous monzonite to diorite, which marks the beginning of the second pulse of magmatism. The most widespread phase of pulse is represented by batholithic syeno-diorite, occasionally grading into diorite and gabbro-diorite. These are equigranular, composed of feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and less commonly, pyroxene, with ~15% mafic minerals. The next most common phase is a hypidiomorphic diorite characterised by 60 to 75% plagioclase, with less common bright pink syenite that has up to 70% feldspar (Golovanov et al., 2005);
• Late Carboniferous to Early Permian syn-mineral granodiorite porphyry to quartz-monzonite porphyry that is part of a larger intrusive mass that has only limited exposure in the centre of the Almalyk District. It is a pale grey or light pink porphyritic rock with clearly visible phenocrysts that comprise 25% quartz, 32% plagioclase, 28% potassic feldspar and 15% biotite. In the immediate Almalyk mine area, the distribution of the quartz monzonite porphyry intrusions is interpreted to to controlled by concealed NW-SE trending basement faulting and occurs as stocks. Some of these porphyry stocks are exposed at the surface, although others are only evident in drill core, or interpreted from geophysical data. The stocks commonly have steep contacts near surface which flatten with depth. All are considered to be salients of a larger deep-seated intrusion.

Both the Almalyk and Saukbulak porphyry Cu-Au systems are associated with the second pulse of magmatic activity, emplaced during the Middle- to Late-Carboniferous, within the Devono-Carboniferous Valerianov-Bel'tau-Kurama magmatic arc. Earlier K-Ar dating of limited accuracy of the ore-related porphyry intrusive and the mineralisation returned ages in the range of 310 to 290 Ma, whereas subsequent U-Pb zircon dating reported for the intrusive sequence in the Almalyk district partially overlaps in the range of 320 to 305 Ma, with Re-Os ages of ore-related porphyries of 315 to 319 Ma (references cited in Golovanov, et al. (2005).

Mineralisation at both Kal'makyr and Dalnee is predominantly in the form of stockworks with lesser disseminations, and is associated with Late Carboniferous quartz monzonite porphyry plugs intruding earlier dioritic and monzonitic intrusive rocks of the same magmatic complex. The orebodies take the form of a cap like shell developed above and draped over the flanks of the related quartz monzonite porphyry stock.

The dominant hosts to ore are the monzonite and diorite wall rocks, with the quartz monzonite porphyry only containing ore in its outer margins, surrounding and/or overlying a barren core. The focus of stockwork development is fracturing related to both the intrusive contact of the porphyry stock and to crosscutting faulting.

Alteration comprises an early K-silicate phase followed by albite-actinolite and peripheral epidote-chlorite-carbonate-pyrite propylites, overprinted by an abundant phyllic episode which is closely related to the final distribution of the ore.

Associated mineralisation commenced with barren quartz-hematite veining, followed by quartz-magnetite, quartz-pyrite-molybdenite-chalcopyrite with the bulk of the contained gold, quartz-carbonate-polysulphide with lesser gold, then by zeolite-anhydrite, and finally carbonate and barite veining. Subsequent oxidation and uplift developed a layer of oxide ore, a limited leached cap and supergene sulphide enrichment, largely in zones of fault related fracturing.


The Kal'makyr deposit is distributed around and within the outer margins of a central plug of Late Carboniferous quartz monzonite porphyry (QMP) intruding earlier Carboniferous monzonite and diorite. The deposit straddles a major fault and extends southwards toward a second fault zone. The main volume of the block defined by these two faults is occupied by monzonite and diorite, although remnants of Devonian volcanic and carbonate rocks are locally preserved.

Approximately 65 to 75% of the ore at Kal'makyr occurs in the form of stockwork veins and veinlets, while 30 to 35% occurs as disseminations. The distribution of the ore stockwork and the intensity of veining is controlled by the density of fracturing and brecciation related to both the intrusion of the QMP stocks and dykes, and to linear fracture zones associated with the Kal'makyr and Karabulak faults. As a result, the stockwork is represented by a downward expanding cone surrounding and capping the quartz monzonite porphyry plug, with a barren core corresponding with the centre of the plug.
Almalyk District
The stockwork is represented by a network of fractures which have been healed by quartz veinlets, and less frequently by calcite or anhydrite, which contain large segregations of the ore sulphides, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite and tetrahedrite. The veinlets vary in thickness from fractions of a millimetre to 3 or 4 cm, and are from a few to a few tens of centimetres in length. The interval between the veinlets if occupied by lesser disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and occasionally other sulphides.

The stockwork zone is elongated in a northwest direction, with maximum surface dimensions of approximately 3520 x 1430 m and a maximum vertical extent of 1240 m. The inner annulus of high-grade ore is substantially smaller, with outer dimensions of approximately 1740 x 500 m and a maximum vertical thickness of 450 m. The most intense fracturing and the highest grade ore are related to the intersections of porphyry contacts with the east-west and northeast trending faults and tend to form a broken annulus within the monzonite and diorite wall rocks immediately surrounding the QMP. The grade rapidly decreases inwards to the barren core in the QMP plug. In contrast the high grade annulus is surrounded by a broad halo of medium grade ore before passing into a lower grade periphery. At depth the ore stockwork becomes less continuous and lenses-out downwards via a series of tongues. The primary Kal'makyr ore contains Cu, Mo, Au, Ag and admixtures of Se, Te, Re, Bi and In.

The upper sections of the ore deposit were subjected to oxidation and supergene enrichment, best developed in areas of more intense fracturing on the QMP contacts and along zones of fault related fracturing. The degree of oxidation, leaching and supergene enrichment varied across the deposit, from oxide to secondary sulphide to mixed oxide-sulphide zones, although the supergene sulphide enrichment was only weakly developed. Oxidation was developed to a maximum depth of 65 m, averaging around 20 m, while leaching, where it replaced in situ oxidation, persisted over a similar thickness. The principal mineral within the oxide zone was malachite, with chrysocolla and turquoise being locally important. Where present, supergene sulphide enrichment, principally as chalcocite and covellite, had a maximum thickness of 70 m, averaging 19 m, while a mixed 'complex' oxide-supergene sulphide zone, where developed, also averaged 19 m in thickness.

Kal'makyr Deposit

Dalnee Section Dalnee

The Dalnee group of deposits comprise a string of three interconnected orebodies, Central, Northwestern Balykty and Karabulak that are a west to northwest, down-plunge continuation of Kal'makyr at deeper levels. The >0.1% Cu outline unites these deposits into a common ellipsoidal sub-economic mineralised mass in plan view. However, post-mineral normal and sinistral strike-slip displacement on both the Karabulak and Kal'makyr faults dissected the ellipse into three blocks. The northern Karabulak block is displaced by 2 km to the west and the Central block (the main Dalnee deposit) for 0.5 km to the west of the southern block and Kal'makyr. The northern block encompassing Karabulak is the least eroded, while the deepest exhumation has affected the southern block and Kal'makyr.

The main Dalnee deposit in the Central area is located within a downward widening tectonic wedge between the Karabulak and Kal'makyr faults which have truncated the mineralised system and displaced ore on the flanks of the underlying QMP. Approximately 58% of the ore in the deposit is hosted by the monzonite, 35% by the diorite and 7% by the QMP. The stockwork is elongated parallel to the east-west direction of faulting and widens downward due to the outward dip of the bounding faults, while the base of mineralisation closely follows the apical surface of the underlying QMP stock. The average vertical extent of mineralisation is about 700 m with a maximum of 1200 m on some sections. The higher grade Cu mineralisation occurs below a depth of 150 to 200 m, while the highest grade core is at a depth of 500 to 600 m. The Karabulak deposit to the north is the least economically important of the Dalnee deposits. Drill holes intersected 'high-grade' Cu mineralisation extending along the Karabulak Fault at depth, associated with a small stock of quartz monzonite porphyry (QMP).

The Sary-Cheku and Kyzata deposits together constitute the Saukbulak Ore Field. These two orebodies are similar, but occur within different fault blocks, which have been eroded to different levels, but may represent the fault displaced halves of the same original deposit. Kyzata is interpreted to have been dropped down and displaced by ~2.5 km to the SW on the northern side of the SW-NE trending, sinistral Miskan Fault. Kyzata is in the central fault block between the Miskan and Burgandy faults, the latter being just to the south of Kalmakyr. Kyzata has subsided relative to Sary-Cheku and only been a little eroded, occurring at a depth of 350 to 550 m, and is generally not stripped by erosion. Sary-Cheku in contrast is in the southeastern fault block which has been deeply eroded, with much of the ore and mineralised porphyry stock being exposed (Zvezdov, et al., 1993).

Mineralisation was discovered in the Saukbulak Ore Field in 1927, with subsequently exploration and evaluation between 1955 and 1983, with open-pit mining of Sary-Cheku from 1974.


Yoshlik is associated with a laccolith like stock of granodiorite porphyry intruding lower Devonian alaskite, granodiorite, andesite and quartz porphyry, as well as middle Carboniferous syenite-diorite. The stock occurs beneath an overlying cap of recrystallised and locally skarn altered limestone and dolomite. It is cut by younger dykes of granodiorite porphyry, syenite and granosyenite porphyry and diorite porphyry (Zvezdov, et al., 1993).

The Yoshlik orebody has the shape of a NW trending, gently dipping, slightly curved lens. Disseminated and stockwork Mo-Cu mineralisation occurs both in the apex and deeper central parts of the porphyry stock, the younger dykes and the surrounding syenite-diorite. It does not however, penetrate into the overlying limestone and dolomite, nor the volcanics. The alteration zoning is also compressed, with the products of K-silicate alteration being almost completely overprinted by the later phyllic phase. There is a downward zonation in the phyllic envelope which encloses the ore, from quartz-sericite, to quartz-sericite-chlorite to a propylitic zone. Geochemical studies indicate a wide lateral dispersion of major elements and metals in the intrusives, but not into the overlying carbonates (Zvezdov, et al., 1993).

Yoshlik is also characterised by higher Mo values, as compared to Kal'makyr, and by the absence of bornite, and a later quartz-carbonate-Au-Pb-Zn sulphide association. The main quartz-molybdenite-pyrite-chalcopyrite with native gold associations are the most common, assemblage, with the K-silicate related veining containing molybdenite and quartz-magnetite being less abundant and confined to the upper contact of the stock and the carbonates (Zvezdov, et al., 1993).

Zvezdov, et al. (1993) note that the Yoshlik deposit its probable and tectonically displaced Sarycheku segment have a different character to the other porphyry copper deposits of the Almalyk district. These include: i). the laccolith-like morphology of the related porphyry stock, which is controlled by the geometry of base of the overlying carbonate sequence; ii). the flat, compressed shape of the alteration and mineralisation zones, the partial superposition and variable preservation of the earliest assemblages, and the 'reverse zoning' downward from the top of the intrusion; iii). the lenticular, subhorizontal shape of the ore-bearing stockwork and the molybdenum-copper orebody within its limits which parallel the apex of the porphyry intrusion; iv). the high density of stockwork veining, the bulk of which are relatively thick and gently dipping, frequently >20 to 25 vol.%, with a high metal content, often >1.0 to 1.5% Cu, with a relatively small variation; and v). the restricted development of primary geochemical haloes, the form of which are controlled not only by the upper limits of the granodiorite-porphyry intrusion, but also by the lithologic-petrographic composition of the overlying rocks. The characteristics have been attributed to 'screening effect' of the capping carbonate sequence beneath which the porphyry copper system developed. Metamorphosed limestone and dolomite, representing the carbonate sequence, differ from the underlying volcanogenic and intrusive rocks by anomalously low porosity and permeability, higher reactivity limiting the upward flow of hydrothermal fluids, low elasticity, and extremely low competence (Zvezdov et al., 1985, 1986). As such the carbonate sequence directly above the orebearing intrusion suggests it forms a structural and chemical petrophysical barrier.


The Sarycheku deposit is related to the hanging wall of the Miskan Fault, with the ore grade mineralisation being confined to the tectonic wedge between the Miskan and Sargalam faults. The host rocks are represented by Devonian rhyolite porphyry, which is cut by Late Paleozoic porphyry intrusion. The oxidised and chalcocite ores have virtually been exhausted, while the underlying hypogene sulphide ore is concentrated within a zone which is 1160 m long and has been traced to a depth of 340 m.

This summary is largely drawn from Seltmann and Porter (2005) and Golovanov et al. (2005), accept as otherwise cited.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2018.     Record last updated: 2/8/2021
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.



  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Cheng, Z., Zhang, Z., Chai, F., Hou, T., Santosh, M., Turesebekov, A. and Nurtaev, B.S.,  2018 - Carboniferous porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Almalyk orefield, Uzbekistan: the Sarycheku and Kalmakyr examples: in    International Geology Review   v.60, pp. 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00206814.2017.1309996
Cheng, Z., Zhang, Z.-C., Turesebekov, A., Nurtaev, B.S., Xu, L. and Santosh, M.,  2018 - Petrogenesis of gabbroic intrusions in the Valerianov-Beltau-Kurama magmatic arc, Uzbekistan: The role of arc maturity controlling the generation of giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits: in    Lithos   v.320-321, pp. 75-92.
Dolgopolova, A., Seltmann, R., Konopelko, D., Biske, Yu. S., Shatov, V., Armstrong, R., Belousova, E., Pankhurst, R., Koneev, R. and Divaev, F.,  2017 - Geodynamic evolution of the western Tien Shan, Uzbekistan: Insights from U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope mapping of granitoids: in    Gondwana Research   v.47, pp. 76-109.
Gao, J., Klemd, R., Zhu, M., Wang, X., Li, J., Wan, B., Xiao, W., Zeng, Q., Shen, PO., Sun J., Qin, K. and Campos, E.,   2017 - Large-scale porphyry-type mineralization in the Central Asian metallogenic domain: A review: in    J. of Asian Earth Sciences   Available on-line from October 18, 2017, 30p.
Gao, J., Qin, K., Zhou, M.-F. and Zaw, K.,  2018 - Large-scale porphyry-type mineralization in the Central Asian Metallogenic Domain: Geodynamic background, magmatism, fluid activity and metallogenesis: in    J. of Asian Earth Sciences   Online, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2018.08.023.
Golovanov I M, Seltmann R and Kremenetsky A A,  2005 - The Porphyry Cu-Au/Mo Deposits of Central Eurasia; 2. The Almalyk (Kalmakyr-Dalnee) and Saukbulak Cu-Au Porphyry Systems, Uzbekistan: in Porter T M, (Ed.), 2005 Super Porphyry Copper & Gold Deposits: A Global Perspective PGC Publishing, Adelaide,   v.2 pp 513-523
Meshchaninov Ye.Z and Azin V N  1973 - Distribution of gold in a copper porphyry deposit, Almalyk region: in    International Geology Review   v15 pp 660-663
Pasava J, Vymazalova A, Kosler J, Koneev R I, Jukov A V and Khalmatov R A,  2010 - Platinum-group elements in ores from the Kalmakyr porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Uzbekistan: bulk geochemical and laser ablation ICP-MS data: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.45 pp. 411-418
Seltmann R and Porter T M,  2005 - The Porphyry Cu-Au/Mo Deposits of Central Eurasia: 1. Tectonic, Geologic & Metallogenic Setting and Significant Deposits: in Porter, T.M. (Ed), 2005 Super Porphyry Copper & Gold Deposits - A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide,   v.2 pp. 467-512
Seltmann, R., Dolgopolova, A. and CERCAMS team,  2012 - Porphyry Cu-Au/Mo Deposits of Central Eurasia: Geodynamics and Metallogeny: in   Existing Resources, New Horizons, KazGeo 2012, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 29-31 October 2012,   Conference Proceedings, 4p.
Seltmann, R., Porter, T.M. and Pirajno, F.,  2014 - Geodynamics and metallogeny of the central Eurasian porphyry and related epithermal mineral systems: A review: in    J. of Asian Earth Sciences,   v.79, pp. 810-841.
Shen, P., Pan, H., Hattori, K., Cooke, D.R. and Seitmuratova, E.,  2018 - Large Paleozoic and Mesozoic porphyry deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Geodynamic settings, magmatic sources, and genetic models: in    Gondwana Research   v.58, pp. 161-194.
Wan, B., Xiao, W., Windley, B.F., Gao, J., Zhang, L. and Cai, K.,  2017 - Contrasting ore styles and their role in understanding the evolution of the Altaids: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.80,  pp. 910-922.
Yakubchuk, A., Degtyarev, K., Maslennikov, V., Wurst, A., Stekhin, A. and Lobanov, K.,  2012 - Tectonomagmatic Settings, Architecture, and Metallogeny of the Central Asian Copper Province: in Hedenquist J W, Harris M and Camus F, 2012 Geology and Genesis of Major Copper Deposits and Districts of the World - A tribute to Richard H Sillitoe, Society of Economic Geologists   Special Publication 16, pp. 403-432
Zhao, X.-B., Xue, C.-J., Chi, G.-X., Mo, X.-X., Nurtaev, B. and Zhang, G.-Z.,  2017 - Zircon and molybdenite geochronology and geochemistry of the Kalmakyr porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Almalyk district, Uzbekistan: Implications for mineralization processes: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.86, pp. 807-824.
Zu, B., Seltmann, R., Xue, C., Wang, T., Dolgopolova, A., Li, C., Zhou, L., Pak, N., Ivleva, E., Chai, M. and Zhao, X.,  2019 - Multiple episodes of Late Paleozoic Cu-Au mineralization in the Chatkal-Kurama terrane: New constraints from the Kuru-Tegerek and Bozymchak skarn deposits, Kyrgyzstan: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103077, 17p.
Zvezdov V S, Migachev I F and Girfanov M M  1993 - Porphyry copper deposits of the CIS and the models of their formation: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v7 pp 511-549

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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