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Stawell Goldfield - Magdala, Golden Gift, Wonga
Victoria, Vic, Australia
Main commodities: Au

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The Stawell Goldfield and the Magdala, Golden Gift, East Magdala, and Wonga gold deposit are located some 210 km WNW of Melbourne in the state of Victoria, Australia (#Location: 37° 3' 31"S, 142° 48' 3"E).

  The Stawell Goldfield is located within a ~20 km wide fault bounded corridor marking the overlap of the Cambrian Delamerian and Lower to Middle Paleozoic Lachlan Orogens. Mineralisation occurs within quartz-sulphide veining hosted by Delamerian ductile shears that were reactivated and mineralised during brittle deformation related to the Lachlan Orogen. Veins are hosted by a poly-deformed Cambrian sequence of altered carbonaceous shales and turbidites on the flanks of a structural dome, the core of which is occupied by a basalt flow complex. The Stawell deposits comprise the fault segregated Magdala and Golden Gift, and the smaller East Magdala lodes on the western and eastern flanks of the dome respectively, and Wonga, 2 km to the SE in the aureole of, and related to the Devonian Stawell Granite. After the Garden Gully Line at Bendigo that produced 148 t of gold, Stawell is the largest hardrock producer in Victoria with an output of 127 t of recovered gold, part of the 163 t endowment.

  Alluvial leads were mined at Stawell between discovery in1853 and 1912. Quartz reef gold was first discovered in 1855 at Big Hill, the surface expression of the Magdala lodes, with production continuing to 1926, when mining ceased. Subsequent sporadic exploration and tailings retreatment was undertaken, until 1978 when Western Mining Corporation Mining began a testing program that led to commencement of a decline at the Magdala deposit in 1981. Open pit exploitation at Wonga began in 1984, followed by an underground mining from 1985.
  Since mining recommenced in 1981, exploration based on structural modelling had attempted to locate the offset continuation of the Magdala deposit across the oblique South Fault that formed the lower limit to known mineralisation. Drilling below the southern end of the deposit failed to locate this repetition. During 1998 and 1999, University of Melbourne researchers undertook detailed structural studies of South Fault exposures underground. This indicated that the fault had evolved from a south-vergent, strike-parallel sense of movement, to a NE over SW direction, perpendicular to strike. It was concluded that, depending upon the degree of displacement, the lower block should be positioned beneath and to the north of the known Magdala mineralisation. Magnetic modelling in conjunction with this structural interpretation provided drill targets. Drilling commenced in June 1999 with success in the second hole of the program, and by 2004, drilling had identified seven distinct fault separated areas of mineralisation (Jackson et al., 2003). Production subsequently commenced from two declines. By mid-2013, development in the Lower Mine exploiting the Golden Gift mineralisation had reached a depth of 1646 m below surface, serviced only by decline, with consequent high mining costs. Remaining resources were decreasing in grade and nearing depletion, and it was confirmed the downward continuation of the Golden Gift mineralisation was fault offset to a depth of ~2300 m. This offset was across a porphyry dyke filled fault, similar to the separation of the Golden Gift and Magdala lodes across the South Fault (Fig. 4A). As a consequence, the Lower mine was closed. With the consequent reduction in overall costs, lower grade lodes and remnants at shallower depths became economic. Underground exploration seeking shallower mineralisation led to test mining of the East Magdala lodes on the eastern flank of the dome in 2016, but was insufficient to ward off closure of all mining late in the same year. Average head grades between 1992 and 2003 were 4.3 g/t Au, but had declined to 2.2 g/t Au by 2016.

Regional Geology

  For detail of the regional setting of central and western Victoria, and the Stawell deposit's position within this framework, see the Regional Setting section of the Bendigo deposit description.
  The gold deposits at Stawell are hosted within an ~100 km wide, NNW trending Cambrian to Ordovician basement block, the Stawell Zone, that is the westernmost of three zones that constitute the Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen in Victoria. The Moyston Fault, a NNW trending, east dipping basal detachment, <20 km to the west of Stawell, separates the Stawell Zone from the Cambrian Delamerian Orogen. The adjoining Bendigo Zone to the east hosts the larger Bendigo and Ballarat gold fields. The west-dipping Coongee Fault, just to the east of Stawell, divides the Stawell Zone into: i). an eastern domain of simply folded sub-greenschist facies turbidites, predominantly of Ordovician age, similar to those of the Bendigo Zone, and ii). an ~15 to 20 km wide western domain, the Stawell Corridor, comprising the ~515 Ma tholeiitic Magdala Basalts and quartz-rich turbidites that together constitute the Moornambool Metamorphic Complex (Robinson et al., 2006). Stawell Regional Geology The Magdala Basalt occurs sporadically over a strike length of >100 km within the Stawell Corridor. Both domains are intruded by Early and Late Devonian granitic plutons. The western domain has undergone more complex deformation, with the degree of metamorphism increasing towards the hanging wall of the Moyston Fault. Deformation is related to both the Cambrian Delamerian and Ordovician Lachlan orogens.

Mine Geology and Mineralisation

  Mineralisation at Stawell is hosted by low- to mid-greenschist facies rocks of the Moonambool Metamorphic Complex. The lowermost unit of the complex is the ~515 Ma Magdala Basalt, exposed as a NNW elongated, doubly plunging basalt dome (the Magdala antiform) over a width of ~1.2 km, a strike length of ~5 km, persisting to a depth of >1700 m. This dome is bounded by a pair of SW dipping faults, the Coongee and Stawell Faults to the NE and SW respectively. It is composed of a series of steeply SW-dipping, NW-plunging, <5 to 250 m thick sheet-like pillowed and massive basalt flows with lesser monomictic breccias. These basalt flows are overlain by, and interfinger with the Albion Formation, a unit with variable thickness that was largely deposited under anoxic conditions. It is predominantly composed of black mudstone, some of which is sulphidic, but also includes interbedded sandstone and siliceous siltstone. The top of the unit is defined by a 20 to 100 m thick black mudstone member. There is a gradational contact with the conformably overlying Leviathan Formation (or Eastern Schists) which comprises up to 1500 m of fine- to medium-grained quartz-rich sandstone and minor black mudstone, and is exposed to the east. The latter was deposited under higher energy, less anoxic conditions. To the west of the Stawell Fault, a monotonous sequence of metamorphosed psammopelitic rocks similar, and possibly equivalent to the Leviathan Formation, is known as the Wonga Schists. All of these rocks are intruded by ~413 Ma feldspar±quartz-phyric felsic dykes and the ~400 Ma Stawell Granite.
  At least seven deformation events are recognised at Stawell. The first three are ductile, attributed to the Delamerian Orogeny, and pre-date mineralisation. D1 between 510 and 504 Ma produced a pronounced planar fabric, interpreted to be thrust-related, accompanied by barren foliation-parallel quartz veins (V1). D2 from 504 to 500 Ma refolded the D1 fabric, resulting in tight asymmetric, NW-trending, upright regional folds, the dominant structural trend in the district. Ductile deformation and metamorphism peaked at mid-greenschist facies during D2, with associated thin, barren axial-planar cleavage parallel quartz veins (V2). D3 generated the 320° trending crustal-scale ENE vergent thrusting imposed upon the western Lachlan Orogen. This event included the development of a crenulation cleavage and parallel barren quartz veins (V3).
Stawell Geology   The succeeding two Lachlan Orogen brittle-ductile events were related to gold mineralisation, followed by two major episodes of brittle deformation that dismembered the deposits. D
4 included an early ductile stage of NW trending, 20 to 60°SW dipping, NE vergent reverse shearing between ~492 and 488 Ma. These shear zones were accompanied by thick laminated, barren quartz veins (V4). Brittle deformation commenced, during late D4 when the stress field was reoriented from NE-SW to east-west, accompanied by a change from shortening to sinistral wrenching that reactivated earlier faults and shears.
  This largely occurred between 455 and 440 Ma and appears to have caused the bulk of the brittle deformation in the Stawell Zone. Continued reactivation of early D
4 structures by this wrenching defined D5 which commenced at ~425 Ma in the Silurian and included the initiation of V5 shear and extensional vein sets. A further rotation of the stress field to NW-SE began after 420 Ma, and includes reverse, SE vergent displacement on the NW dipping Scotchman’s and early South Fault. Quartz-feldspar porphyry dykes were intruded at ~413 Ma parallel to existing structural weaknesses such as S1 to S3, and the Hampshire, Stawell and early South faults. As the stress field continued to rotate clockwise, SW vergent late D6 displacement occurred on the NE dipping South Fault that dismembered the Magdala-Golden Gift deposit. The Stawell Granite was emplaced during this period at ~400 Ma. The final deformation, D7, took place during the Devonian, with further rotation of the stress field to NE-SW, resulting in NW trending dip-slip and east-west steeply dipping transverse faults with normal displacement further dismembering the deposit (Fig. 3).
  The host rock to much of the mineralisation is a 5 to 70 m thick interval of Albion Formation mudstone and Leviathan Formation arenites at the contact with the Magdala Basalt known as the Stawell Facies. These rocks were initially hydrothermally altered in response to seawater interaction with the hot basaltic pile, and were modified during subsequent structural and mineralising events in at least six stages (Wilson et al., 2008). Stage 1 was Fe-enrichment during D
1; Stage 2 involved syn-D2 metamorphic chlorite, orbicular carbonate and pyrite formation; Stage 3 muscovite, siderite, ankerite and pyrrhotite persisted from D2 to early D4; Stage 4 stilpnomelane, siderite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and pyrite was syn-late D4; Stage 5 silica, with post-late D4 but pre- D5 minnesotaite and magnetite; and Stage 6, syn-D5 Fe-rich chlorite, muscovite, calcite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. The Stawell Facies, which is the sum of these assemblages, is dominated by chlorite and stilpnomelane with abundant recrystallised sulphides, including pyrrhotite, that was produced between D2 and late D4.
  The most extensive and significant gold mineralising event in the western Lachlan Orogen took place at ~440 Ma, occurring contemporaneously in the Stawell and in the Bendigo-Ballarat Zones. The bulk of the gold was emplaced during late D
4 deformation in the Stawell Zone and the coeval D1 of the Bendigo Goldfield (Miller and Wilson, 2002). A second episode took place at ~426 to 420 Ma, associated with D5. The final mineralising episode at Stawell formed the Wonga deposit, postdating ~413 Ma felsic dykes, but overprinted by the ~400 Ma Stawell Granite contact areole. It has been suggested this latter mineralisation is temporally and spatially related to the Wonga Granite emplacement (Miller and Wilson, 2004).
Stawell Structure

  Gold-hosting, NNW trending early D
4 shear zones and faults of the Magdala deposit are developed on the southwestern flank and crest of the doubly plunging basalt dome, the Magdala Antiform. These structures were reactivated and mineralised during late D4 and D5 sinistral wrenching. The gold-bearing lodes within these structures occur subparallel to composite S0/S1/S2 foliations within the carbonaceous Albion Formation, enclosed by Stawell Facies chlorite+stilpnomelane alteration. The major NE-dipping D6 South Fault, caused the SW-vergent offset of the Magdala deposit, separating it from the structurally underlying Golden Gift mineralisation. Four main ore types have been differentiated within the Magdala Deposit, the Hangingwall, Central, Basalt Contact and Magdala Stockwork lodes.
  Hangingwall Lodes were an important source of early production, yielding ~30 t of gold between 1856 and 1880 at ~30 g/t Au. They are hosted by white mica-altered portions of the Albion Formation, located within and adjacent to the Stawell Fault and in intersecting flat faults. These lodes are ~100 to 300 m above the Magdala Basalt, and external to the Stawell Facies alteration. They are massive and laminated quartz veins up to 2 m thick within shear zones as much as 5 m wide. Gold occurs as free native grains in quartz and in association with an arsenopyrite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena assemblage (Fredericksen and Gane, 1998).
  The Central Lode mineralisation occurs as a complex shear-hosted vein system, generally within 10 to 70 m to the west of the Magdala basalt and enveloped by Stawell Facies alteration. It is mineralised over a strike length of ~4 km and down dip extent of >1 km, and dips at 60 to 80°SW, following the basalt contact. Up-dip it diverges from the basalt and follows a band of Stawell Facies alteration within the Albion Formation to the surface. Adjacent to the Magdala Basalt, it commonly includes a Basalt Contact Lode in the footwall, the main westerly dipping, quartz-rich Central Lode zone fringed by weak stockwork mineralisation within the Stawell Facies, and a hanging wall lode along the contact with unaltered Albion Formation. The hanging wall lode is similar to the Central Lode, but is usually thinner and has higher Au grades. This shear-vein package is generally 20 to 30 m thick. The Central Lode zone contains 0.5 to 10 m wide laminated V
4 quartz veins, generally dipping at 55 to 60°W. These early D4 veins were barren when emplaced, but were mineralised during late D4 (440 Ma) and D5 (425 to 420 Ma), coeval with sinistral strike slip wrenching. The resultant reactivated and mineralised shears contain multiple episodes of veining and quartz boudins, overprinted by complex duplex structures and mylonites. Mineralisation occurs in quartz veins, massive sulphides and quartz-pyrite lodes. It is dominated by an assemblage of quartz, pyrite, arsenopyrite, recrystallised pyrrhotite, galena and sphalerite, with free gold in fractures in quartz veins and associated with the sulphides. Much of this mineralisation was accompanied by hydraulic fracturing due to overpressuring during the reactivation of the pre-existing shear system. Ore shoots plunge steeply to the NW and are from 20 to 30 m in width and as much as 200 to 350 m in strike length, persisting down plunge for up to 500 m. Average mined grade from the Central Lode was historically 4 to 7 g/t Au. The east-west D5 compression produced another series of ore-shoots on lower angle fault segments (flat lodes) within the overall lode system, displacing the D4 lodes. These younger veins typically contain quartz-carbonate±chlorite with up to 60% arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite.
  Basalt Contact Lodes are located parallel to the Magdala Basalt and in re-entrants of the Stawell Facies-Magdala Basalt contact. The re-entrants are known locally as ‘Waterloos’ and have been interpreted to represent narrow, tight, sheared parasitic synfomal keels of Stawell Facies rocks wedged between basalt buttresses (e.g., Miller and Wilson, 2002). Alternatively they may represent fingers of Albion Formation that have been altered to Stawell Facies, and are intercalated between Magdala Basalt flows that partitioned strain during ductile deformation (e.g., Robinson et al., 2006). Both cases appear to apply in different sections of the contact. Basalt Contact Lodes are typically 2 to 3 m thick, persisting over lengths of 50 to 450 m. They comprise arrays of quartz sulphide tension veins immediately adjacent to the Stawell Facies-Magdala Basalt contact. Sulphides include pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and pyrite, occurring as selvages on the vein margins. Chalcopyrite is commonly found with pyrrhotite. Stilpnomelane is the dominant alteration mineral imparting a dark colour to the lodes. Native gold is often visible but is more commonly invisible, occurring along sulphide grain boundaries and intergrown within sulphides. The average grade is from 4 to 9 g/t Au.
  Magdala Stockwork Lodes comprise tensional arrays of quartz and sulphide veins associated with dilatant zones adjacent to flexures in basalt contacts, usually above basalt noses, or fringing major veins such as Central Lode. Dominant sulphides are arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite. Lateral extents are limited to 40 to 50 m and 30 to 50 m horizontally and vertically respectively. Average mined grades are from 4 to 7 g/t Au.
Stawell Geology

Golden Gift

  The same stratigraphic sequence and geological relationships are observed at Golden Gift, particularly the Magdala Basalt, Stawell Facies and an 80 m thick package of black mudstone at the base of the Albion Formation. D6 and D7 faulting separated Magdala and Golden Gift, as well as internally disrupting the deposit, creating isolated ore blocks and complicating the ore geometry within each block. The deposit is truncated to the SW by the Wildcat Porphyry that appears to occupy a fault sub-paralleling the South Fault, but gradually diverging down-dip. The continuation of the deposit has been located ~800 m lower, in the footwall of the Wildcat Porphyry.
  Only one ore type has been identified, the Golden Gift Stockwork, although it comprises a spectrum of all the Magdala styles. Mineralised widths typically vary from 8 to 30 m with shoot strike extents of between 150 and 400 m. Highest gold grades and widths occur above basalt noses that are present in most ore blocks. The quartz content is generally <25%, with abundant recrystallised pyrrhotite and coarse-grained arsenopyrite, pyrite and visible gold. Average mined grades were from 4 to 10 g/t Au.

East Magdala

  The East Magdala mineralisation (Fig. 4A and C) on the eastern flank of the Magdala Antiform includes Basalt Contact lodes and an additional style, the Hampshire Lodes. Alteration is distinguished by a reduction in chlorite content compared to the western flank mineralisation, and the near absence of white mica. The Hampshire Lode zones are broadly concordant with the basalt dome, confined to a strongly silica-sulphide altered siliciclastic sedimentary unit of the Leviathan Formation, in contrast to the sulphidic, carbonaceous Albion Formation of the western flank. The siliceous host unit contains centimetre- to metre-scale sub-planar layers of magnetite, chlorite and carbonate with ubiquitous pyrrhotite, locally referred to as 'BIF's due to the visual similarities to banded iron formations. Three ductile deformation events have been identified at East Magdala associated with D
1 to D3. The mineralised lodes have been differentiated into two categories, vertical and flat lodes, on the flanks and over the hinges of F3 folds respectively. Gold mineralisation is volumetrically more significant in the flat lodes, particularly over decametre-scale F3 fold closures where dilation, which is most intensely developed in the competent silica-rich BIFs, is infilled by later mineralised veins. Visible gold occurs within chlorite- and sulphide-poor quartz veining, and within the matrix of the adjacent Fe-rich sedimentary host, post-dating the main enveloping quartz-stilpnomelane-magnetite-pyrrhotite alteration assemblage of the Stawell Facies.


  The Wonga Deposit is located ~2 km SE of Magdala, hosted by the Leviathan Formation (locally termed ‘Wonga Schist’). Mineralisation occurs within mudstone-dominant lithofacies in the core of a regional synform, underlain by sandstone-dominant lithofacies. Neither the Magdala Basalt nor Albion Formation are recognised in the deposit area. The Wonga Schist and mineralisation have undergone contact metamorphism related to the Stawell Granite to form biotite-corundum-spinel-andalusite-garnet-cordierite schists. These rocks retain evidence of all seven deformation events recognised elsewhere in the district. In contrast to Magdala and Golden Gift, the Wonga lodes display a close temporal and spatial relationship with intrusive rocks. They also have a distinct structural style and mineralogy, including fine-grained anhedral pyrrhotite, acicular arsenopyrite, stibnite, gold-telluride alloys, bismuth, silver and late-stage molybdenite. This suite of minerals is disseminated in structurally controlled massive quartz and quartz breccia veins that enclose angular clasts of wall rock. The highest ore grades are associated with veins that have strongly developed selvages of fine needle-like arsenopyrite grains within zones of andalusite and white mica alteration, and rutile and ilmenite associations. Gold occurs as <10 µm free grains and/or intergrowths within arsenopyrite. These mineralised veins are interpreted to be the result of magmatic-related fluid overpressure that drove deformation across a broad zone. Mineralisation is structurally controlled by dextral reverse slip hanging wall structures which strike at 350° and dip between 25 and 50°E, and diverging link structures, generally trending at 240° and dipping from 40 to 70°SE creating en echelon lode geometries. Production from Wonga was ~ 9 t Au at grades that ranged from 4 to 6 g/t Au (Miller and Wilson, 2004; Fredericksen and Gane, 1998).

Reserves, Resources and Production

Total production to 2016 was 151.5 t Au, comprising:
    Alluvial workings from 1853 to 1912 - ~24 t Au;
    Hardrock from 1855 to 1926 - 59.1 t Au;
    Hardrock from 1981 to 2016 - 68.43 t Au;

Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves at 31 December, 2016 (Kirkland Lake 2017 Mineral Reserve and Resource Statement; Kirkland Lake NI 43–101 Stawell Gold Mine report, 2016) were:
  Remaining Mineral Resources - 4.83 Mt @ 2.3 g/t Au, comprising:
    Measured Resource - 0.08 Mt @ 3.7 g/t Au;
    Indicated Resource - 3.62 Mt @ 2.0 g/t Au;
    Inferred Resource - 1.13 Mt @ 2.9 g/t Au;
    Probable Reserve - 2.7 Mt @ 1.5 g/t Au.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this decription was dated: 2016.     Record last updated: 8/7/2017
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.


  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Arne D C, Bierlein F P, McNaughton N, Wilson C J L and Morand V J,  1998 - Timing of gold mineralisation in western and central Victoria, Australia: New constraints from SHRIMP II analysis of zircon grains from felsic intrusive rocks: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v13 pp 251-273
Bierlein F P, Fuller T, Stuwe K, Arne D C and Keays R R  1998 - Wallrock alteration associated with turbidite-hosted gold deposits. Examples from the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt in central Victoria, Australia: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v13 pp 345-380
Dugdale A L, Wilson C J L and Squire R J,   2006 - Hydrothermal alteration at the Magdala gold deposit, Stawell, western Victoria: in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v53 pp 733-757
Elmer F L, Dugdale A L and Wilson C J L,  2008 - Application of mineral equilibria modeling to constrain T and X CO2 conditions during the evolution of the Magdala gold deposit, Stawell, Victoria, Australia: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.43 pp. 759-776
Foster D A, Gray D R, Kwak T A P and Bucher M  1998 - Chronology and tectonic framework of turbidite-hosted gold deposits in the Western Lachlan Fold Belt, Victoria: 40Ar-39Ar results: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v13 pp 229-250
Fredericksen D C, Gane M  1998 - Stawell gold deposits: in Berkman D A, Mackenzie D H (Ed.s), 1998 Geology of Australian & Papua New Guinean Mineral Deposits The AusIMM, Melbourne   Mono 22 pp 535-542
Henry, D.A., Squire, R.J., Wilson, C.J.L. and Rawling, T.J.,   2006 - Structural and lithological controls on the high-grade Hangingwall Reef quartz-gold veins, Stawell, Victoria : in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences,   v.53, pp. 759-766.
Hughes, M.J. and Phillips, G.N.,  2015 - Mineralogical domains within gold provinces: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v.124, pp. 191-204.
Jackson, S., Fredericksen, D., Stewart, M., Vann, J., Burke, A., Dugdale, J. and Bertoli, O.,  2003 - Geological and Grade Risk at the Golden Gift and Magdala Gold Deposits Stawell, Victoria, Australia: in    5th International Mining Geology Conference, Bendigo, Vic, 17 - 19 November 2003,   Proceedings, 8p.
Mapani, B.E.S. and Wilson, C.J.L.,  1998 - Evidence for externally derived vein forming and mineralising fluids: An example from the Magdala gold mine, Stawell, Victoria, Australia: in    Ore Geology Reviews,   v.13, pp. 323-343.
Miller J M, Wilson C J L, Dugdale L J,  2006 - Stawell gold deposit: a key to unravelling the cambrian to early devonian structural evolution of the western Victorian goldfields : in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v53 pp 677-695
Miller J M. Wilson C J L  2002 - The Magdala lode system, Stawell, southeastern Australia: structural style and relationship to Gold mineralization across the western Lachlan Fold Belt: in    Econ. Geol.   v97 pp 325-349
Miller J McL, Wilson C J L,  2004 - Structural analysis of faults related to a heterogeneous stress history: reconstruction of a dismembered gold deposit, Stawell, western Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia: in    J. of Structural Geology   v26 pp 1231-1256
Miller, J.McL. and Wilson, C.J.L.,  2004 - Stress Controls on Intrusion-Related Gold Lodes: Wonga Gold Mine, Stawell, Western Lachlan Fold Belt, Southeastern Australia: in    Econ. Geol.   v.99, pp. 941-963.
Musgrave R J Grewar J and Vega M,   2006 - Significance of remanence in Stawell goldfield aeromagnetic anomalies: in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v53 pp 783-797
Phillips, G.N. and Hughes, M.J.,  1998 - Victorian gold province: in Berkman D A, Mackenzie D H (Ed.s), 1998 Geology of Australian & Papua New Guinean Mineral Deposits The AusIMM, Melbourne   Mono 22 pp. 495-506.
Quick D R  1990 - Stawell Goldfield: in Hughes F E (Ed.), 1990 Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia & Papua New Guinea The AusIMM, Melbourne   Mono 14, v2 pp 1275-1276
Ramsay W R H, Bierlein F P, Arne D C and VandenBerg A H M,  1998 - Turbidite-hosted gold deposits of Central Victoria, Australia: their regional setting, mineralising styles, and some genetic constraints : in    Ore Geology Reviews   v13 pp 131-151
Robinson J A, Wilson C J L and Rawling T J,  2006 - Numerical modelling of an evolving gold-lode system: structural and lithological controls on ore-shoot formation in the Magdala goldmine, western Victoria : in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v53 pp 799-823
Robinson J A, Wilson C J L and Rawling T J,  2006 - Influence of volcano-sedimentary facies architecture on strain partitioning during the evolution of an orogenic-gold lode system, Stawell, western Victoria : in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v53 pp 721-732
Squire R J, Robinson J A, Rawling T J and Wilson C J L,  2008 - Controls on Ore Shoot Locations and Geometries at the Stawell Gold Mine, Southeastern Australia: Contributions of the Volcanosedimentary, Alteration, and Structural Architecture : in    Econ. Geol.   v.103 pp. 1029-1041
Willman, C.E., Korsch, R.J., Moore, D.H., Cayley, R.A., Lisitisin, V.A., Rawling, T.J., Mrand, V.J. and OShea, P.J.,  2010 - Crustal-Scale Fluid Pathways and Source Rocks in the Victorian Gold Province, Australia: Insights from Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105, pp. 895-915.
Wilson C J L, Robinson J A and Dugdale A L,  2009 - Quartz vein fabrics coupled to elevated fluid pressures in the Stawell gold deposit, south-eastern Australia: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.44 pp. 245-263
Wilson, C.J.L., Xu, G. and Moncrieff, J.,  1999 - The structural setting and contact metamorphism of the Wonga Gold deposit, Victoria, Australia: in    Econ. Geol.   v.94, pp. 1305-1328.

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo, its employees and servants:   i). do not warrant, or make any representation regarding the use, or results of the use of the information contained herein as to its correctness, accuracy, currency, or otherwise; and   ii). expressly disclaim all liability or responsibility to any person using the information or conclusions contained herein.

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